In other words, even the Graneaus, who have
such a brilliantly simple demonstration of an excess energy process,
studiously avoid the notion that there can be any massfree
anything in the "void" between what are regarded as "hard
particle" atoms. Such is the strength of the dominant paradigms
that the Graneaus can conceive of only "poorly understood" latent
heat mechanisms to explain the perplexing excess energy they have
so well documented.
The Graneau work has proceeded further to show that
even air-arc's- the laboratory version of ordinary lightning-
exhibit previously unsuspected energy phenomena. Moreover, this
air-arc work has now been published in a mainstream plasma physics
journal and it demonstrates an excess electrical energy
approaching 24%!31 Joule heat in a load resistor was
found to exceed the energy supplied from the input capacitor bank.
This percentage excess is a very conservative figure, the authors
point out, because it does not take into consideration the thermal
losses in other parts of the circuitry. The real excess power,
they say, is more like 30-40%. The air arc excess energy work
has now been replicated independently by a prestigious physics
group in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, which includes our old cold fusion
friend J.-P. Vigier.32
Wallman and Wilbur Dammann:
Gas from Underwater Carbon Arcs
Like the work of the Graneaus, the experiments
of Wallman and Dammann at DW Energy Research, LLC shows that simple
electrical arc systems can manifest apparent energy anomalies.
The intent of Wallman/Dammann initially was to develop a controlled
plasma technology that could disintegrate organic waste and at
the same time generate a useful combustible gas.33
Their computer-controlled arc technology using carbon electrodes
under water does indeed create an exceedingly clean-burning gas
(nominally a mixture of H2 and CO), which can
be used and has already been used in automobile and marine applications,
as numerous independent tests have shown. Emissions of CO, NOx,
etc. are exceedingly low. But testing the process also gave rise
to an unexpected excess energy anomaly of great significance.
Testing of the combustion value of the gas produced compared to
the electrical power input and carbon input, reported in Infinite
Energy in 1996, showed a range in excess power ratios (out/in)
of 127% to 144%.34 This was very conservative and did
not take into account the heating by the electrical arc of the
water solution and test vessel structure.
Mills et al., BlackLight Power Corporation:
Plasmas of Hydrogen and Noble Gases
The work of Randell Mills and his colleagues
has progressed remarkably since it was first announced in Fusion
Technology in 1991.35 Mills has long since gone
beyond his early work in ordinary water/K2CO3
electrolytic cells employing (typically) nickel cathodes and anodes-
work which has been reproduced by several other groups, including
one at NASA and another high quality reproduction at MIT Lincoln
Laboratory (the latter, most regrettably, not yet published).
Mills et al. at BlackLight Power Corp. in Cranbury, New
Jersey have mounted what is one of the most direct threats ever
to the entire foundation of Quantum Mechanics, because the compendious
experimental data sets- if valid- prima facie cannot be
explained by Standard Quantum Mechanics (SQM). There is convincing
excess energy data of large magnitude and there are spectral
emission lines that do not correspond to previously recognized
It should be of more than
passing interest to those working in CF/LENR, that the most severe
critics of "cold fusion" (e.g. P. Zimmermann and R. Park)
have been mounting a very strong effort to attack the Mills work,
which is increasingly appearing in quality peer-reviewed journals
such as the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. As
with the pathological skeptics' attacks on cold fusion, the attacks
on Mills' work consist of perpetually inventive bogus criticisms
of the experiments (the skeptics never offer any actual null experiments,
of course), combined with self-satisfied arguments that SQM cannot
be challenged. Sound familiar? If the past vocal physics establishment
critics of CF/LENR have been temporarily focusing most of their
firepower against Mills and ignoring cold fusion, it is because
they perceive the Mills work, for now, as a greater threat to
their theories and ideology. Indeed, Mills is a very severe threat
to those air castles: what his teams predict will happen
in experiments does happen. Those in CF/LENR and elsewhere,
who may not agree with the Mills' theory of lower-ground state
hydrogen atoms ("hydrinos") and the electron as an "orbitsphere"
spherical shell of charge, should at the very least examine
carefully the repeatability of Mills-type experiments, which are
now mostly of the gaseous plasma variety.
BlackLight Power has placed
much of its technical output on its website (www.blacklightpower.com).
Some calorimetric experiments by BlackLight Power extracted from
a summary paper on its site,36 which lists some 76
individual anomalous experimental results that are claimed to
falsify SQM, should impress CF/LENR researchers (Note: References
in brackets [xx] are from Mills' bibliography of technical papers.):
The observation that the optically measured output power of gas
cells for power supplied to the glow discharge increased by over
two orders of magnitude depending on the presence of less than
1% partial pressure of certain catalysts in hydrogen gas or argon-hydrogen
gas mixtures, and an excess thermal balance of 42 W was measured
for the 97% argon and 3% hydrogen mixture versus argon plasma
"50.) The Calvet calorimetry measurement of an energy balance
of over -151,000 kJ/mole H2 with the addition of 3%
hydrogen to a plasma of argon having the catalyst Ar+ compared
to the enthalpy of combustion of hydrogen of -241.8KJ/mole H2;
whereas, under identical conditions no change in the Calvet voltage
was observed when hydrogen was added to a plasma of noncatalyst
"51.) The observation that the power output exceeded the power
supplied to hydrogen glow discharge plasmas by 35-184 W depending
on the presence of catalysts from helium or argon and less than
1% partial pressure of strontium metal in noble gas-hydrogen mixtures;
whereas, the chemically similar noncatalyst krypton had no effect
on the power balance "
The observation that with the addition of 3% flowing hydrogen
to an argon microwave plasma with a constant input power of 40
W, the gas temperature increased from 400°C to over 750°C; whereas,
the 400°C temperature of a xenon plasma run under identical conditions
was essentially unchanged with the addition of hydrogen "
Observations of power such as that where the addition of 10% hydrogen
to a helium microwave plasma maintained with a constant microwave
input power of 40 W, the thermal output power was measured to
be at least 280 W corresponding to a reactor temperature rise
from room temperature to 1200°C within 150 seconds, a power density
of 28 MW/m3, and an energy balance of at least -4x105
kJ/mole H2 compared to the enthalpy of combustion of
hydrogen of -241.8kJ/mole H2 [34,35]"
The observation of 306±5W of excess power generated in 45cm3
by a compound-hollow-cathode-glow discharge of a neon-hydrogen
(99.5%/0.5%) mixture corresponding to a power density of 6.8 MW/m3
and an energy balance of at least - 1x106 kJ/mole H2
compared to the enthalpy of combustion of hydrogen of -241.8kJ/mole
The observation that for an input of 37.7 W, the total plasma
power of the neon-hydrogen plasma measured by water bath calorimetry
was 60.7 W corresponding to 23.0 W of excess power in 3 cm3
The observation of intense He+ emission and a total
plasma power of a helium-hydrogen plasma measured by water bath
calorimetry of 30.0 W for an input of 8.1 W, corresponding to
21.9 W of excess power in 3 cm3 wherein the excess
power density and energy balance were high, 7.3 W/cm3
and -2.9x104 kJ/mole H2, respectively [36,63,71,73]"
The observation of energy balances of helium-hydrogen microwave
plasmas of over 100 times the combustion of hydrogen and power
densities greater than 10 W/cm3 measured by water bath
calorimetry [34-36,50, 63, 71, 73, 76-78, 84]"
The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement of minimum
heats of formation of KHI by the catalytic reaction of K with
atomic hydrogen and KI that were over -2000 kJ/mole H2
compared to the enthalpy of combustion of hydrogen of -241.8 kJ/mole
It should be clear to objective
evaluators of this brief excerpt, from a much larger multifaceted
experimental program from BlackLight Power, that something quite
profound is happening- much as profound findings are emerging,
albeit of a different but related character, in the CF/LENR field.
It is most unfortunate that the external, intellectually bankrupt
terrorist-like activities of people such as Park and Zimmermann
has created the circumstance where open communication between
the CF/LENR field and the sister area of hydrino science is extremely
difficult. But not to assign all blame to Park and Zimmerman:
there has been a calculated avoidance of Mills by theorists within
CF/LENR. Why? Again, because of excessive and misplaced fidelity
to the SQM theory. A curative for this common CF/LENR malady might
be a careful reading Mills recent paper, "The Fallacy of Feynman's
Argument on the Stability of the Hydrogen Atom According to Quantum
and Alexandra Correa (Labofex in Toronto):
Abnormal Glow Discharge (PAGDTM) Reactor
The work of the Correas in excess energy
from arc discharges, which began serendipitously for them in the
early 1980s, further expands the universe of what is possible
in systems with electrical input into plasmas. It took the Correas
many long years to control the explosive releases of energy that
destroyed many reactors and power supplies, but now they have
the process firmly under control. The Correa PAGD work really
puts the nonsense of controlled thermonuclear fusion work into
perspective, as CF/LENR has not yet been able to do. Here we have
self-financed researchers with a small lab in Canada already producing
huge excess power, already in the form of continuous output electricity-
of which the hot fusioneers can only dream, even after having
spent circa $20 billion on their white elephant projects. The
Correas are using technologies that are explicitly detailed so
far in three U.S. patents covering their PAGD technology.38
They use large glass high-vacuum tubes with aluminum plate cathodes
to demonstrate that in a particular negative resistance region
of arc discharge, they can create automatic (autogenous) pulses
of electrical energy that far exceed input energy. For example,
one integrated V-I plot of an output pulse may amount to 42 J
of energy in 150 msec, triggered by a 25 msec pulse from the drive
pack of only 4.4 J.
the Correas show explicitly in their patents how such excess electricity
can charge up deep cycle batteries. They have arranged their experiments
such that by moving the ~500 V driving battery pack, when it is
depleted, to the position of the charging-up (output) pack and
moving the charging-up pack to the drive position, they can sustain
indefinite electric energy production. They have gone much further:
In experiments that this author and others have witnessed in the
past few years, they have been able to drive certain flywheel
spinner motors at 500 W spin-up power with only 50 W DC input
power. (These new developments in motor driving are not yet patent-protected.)
first had the opportunity to meet Dr. Paulo Correa at the Third
International Symposium on New Energy, held in Denver, CO in April
1996. There he spoke about his and his co-investigator Alexandra
Correa's PAGDTM reactor. Alexandra was not able to
attend that meeting, but Dr. Correa gave an excellent keynote
lecture at that time about the PAGD. Dr. Correa's scientific demeanor
and explanations were then already impressive. He copiously referenced
the work of many others who had earlier found anomalies in arc
behavior, and he offered specific praise for Dr. Harold Aspden's
work, which I had earlier encountered. (Dr. Aspden is on Infinite
Energy's Scientific Advisory Board and is a long-time scientific
colleague of the Correas. His website is: http://www.energyscience.co.uk.)
At the 1996 Denver meeting, Dr. Aspden spoke on "Vacuum Spin as
a New Energy Source"- and this may indeed be part of the explanation
for what is going on in PAGD. Dr. Aspden, with his theoretical
background in electrical engineering and the experience of his
20 years as IBM's head of patent operations in Europe, had earlier
offered formal assessments of the Correa PAGD work- see the recently
posted 1996 Opinion at the Correa website www.aetherometry.com.
Infinite Energy began publishing the work of the Correas
on the PAGD soon after this Denver meeting;39-43 and we also have
continued to publish some of Dr. Aspden's pioneering work.44-51
PAGD work and technology originated from studies of low voltage
X-ray production in the mid-1980s, but the Correas' joint interest
in the work of Wilhelm Reich and Nikola Tesla was of even earlier
vintage. Those who would like to know about the Correas' recent
work on a host of other "aetherometric" inventions, should read
the testimonial letters posted by me, Mr. Uri Soudak (formerly
CTO of Israel Aircraft Industries), and Prof. Arthur Axelrad of
the University of Toronto. The letters by me in 2001 and 2002
on observations of PAGD and other devices are detailed and self-explanatory.
Many of these devices, including the PAGD, can be seen on a scientific
DVD available from (www.aethera.org).
[Note: The DVD will be shown informally at ICCF10 at the poster
session for this paper.]
now, let us consider the PAGD alone as another example of an electrically-stimulated
excess energy process. The primary advantage of this focus is
that the technology has been patented and is specified precisely
enough in these public domain documents so that others could verify
it independently, if they chose to do so. Certainly, any number
of plasma physics labs in the hot fusion program would have little
difficulty in observing PAGD effects- but judging by their behavior
in the cold fusion war, one can understand why these money-sucking,
pointless appendages of DoE have no interest in doing so. Perhaps
some of the U.S. Navy labs might develop some interest, since
they have already carried out a very good effort in the CF/LENR
area on a very limited budget.
Central Importance of the "Third Element"- The Return of the Aether
At the conclusion of ICCF9
in Beijing in 2002, Dr. Mike McKubre in his inimitable style delivered
a most wonderful set of remarks.52 He admitted his
slowness in changing his own paradigm within the CF/LENR field,
but then he went on- in a remarkably forward-looking statement-
to suggest that it was time for him to change. His words serve
as a kind of description of how the overall field of cold fusion
has changed and in what directions it must continue to change:
"And in general I have resisted the expansion of the field. I
resisted the extension of the field into biological nuclear effects,
into consideration of the sort of rotating magnetic machines that
Gene Mallove's magazine keeps us informed about, and into the
concept of 'zero point' energy. I just resist the idea of zero
point energy. Nickel/hydrogen studies- the possibility of heat
from nickel light water experiments- I have resisted this. And
I have resisted the concept of transmutation. That somehow we
can change higher mass elements from one isotope to another. It
isn't that I think these effects are not well observed or disclosed
by able people. My resistance really is- I resented the diversion
of focus of attention from what was already a very difficult problem.
In general those effects are just too easy for our critics to
attack- to use as sticks to beat us with. At least for the heat
effect, possibly also tritium production from nickel/light water
experiments with small additions of deuterium, and for the yielded
evidence of nuclear isotopes- at least for those two things and
at least for me, I think the time has come to change. My prejudice
must change.We will have common theory to describe these effects."
Indeed, that should be
the quest for theorists within the cold fusion/LENR field, "a
common theory to describe these effects." But what if something
very, very important has been left out? In an additional prescient
remark made at ICCF9 in that same talk, Mike McKubre said, "The
thing that has really emerged here is what I have called, and
what Dr. Iwamura has called, the third element- the important
involvement of an element other than palladium and deuterium."
In this remark, he was referring of course to the host of other
elements- such as boron, or in the case of the Iwamura et al work12-13
the elements cesium and strontium- which have been used in conjunction
with palladium-based cold fusion experiments. But in more liberal
interpretation of his remark (which he most certainly did not
intend!) the "third element" that has hitherto been ignored may
be the energetic aether (EA), that "element"' which experiments
are showing pervades the supposed "vacuum" of "nothingness" within
and between atoms, and which in fact most probably gives rise
to their very structure as extended toroidal or other geometric
assemblages of flux. This would be the logical continuation of
models sought by the great aether theorists of the 19th century,
among them Lord Kelvin.
Please examine the varied
opinions about the aether/ether, which I have collected in a lengthy
Appendix to this paper. It will give you a modest historic perspective
that is absent in the post-Einstein literature. Just as it is
relatively simple for CF/LENR workers today to see though the
B.S. that is produced by the mainstream with their references
to cold fusion as "pathological science," so is it remarkable
to observe the "memory hole" effect of establishment figures operating
on the important matter of the energetic aether.
Yes, at root the paradigm
problem with cold fusion/LENR is that it is still stuck in the
morass that mid-to-late 20th Century physics has given us- "hard,"
fixed elementary particles (such as electrons and quarks),
which are further described by a mathematized house of cards known
as probabilistic quantum mechanics or any of its variants- the
alphabet soup QED, QFT, QCD, and now onto theories about "strings,"
"branes," "dark matter," "dark energy," and all manner of other
epicycle-like junk. Indeed the hands-on experimentally measurable
energetic aether (EA) must now return with a vengeance to replace
the older concept of mid-19th Century to early 20th Century physics,
the static, luminiferous (electromagnetic) aether- the supposed
massfree medium that was transversely vibrated to give rise to
what was called electromagnetic radiation.
Einstein's Special Relativity
(1905) was supposed to be a theory that "abolished" any consideration
of this aether- any aether. In truth, it abolished
nothing whatsoever- at least it did not do so legitimately. SR
became merely a seemingly extremely well-fitting body of equations
that most surely does "fit" numerous experiments and some energetic
reactions. It is the illegitimate interpretation of these limited
equations, which suggests a complete equivalence between mass
and energy- with no possibility of any massfree (inertialess)
source of energy in space. After all, we are given the famous
equation E = mc2, which on its face mandates that if
there is no mass, m, E=0. And that is again the crux of the problem
with the mainstream cold fusion hypothesis (MCFH).
There is an even greater
lesson here that theorists within the cold fusion/LENR field should
understand, that is if they want to seek the truth about nature,
as opposed to merely writing ever more elaborate theory papers
with SQM and SR as implied pillars. The philosophical belief in
the so-called "Unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" in describing
physical reality53 has proved to be a great hazard-
one of the worst imaginable for scientists. Cold fusion people
are in some sense already aware of this, but they have not "gone
all the way" in ridding themselves of this prejudice. They are
aware that in the early days of cold fusion- and continuing- Establishment
theorists such as Steve Koonin were fond of "proving" that QM
would not allow the possibility of D + D "cold fusion." But the
cold fusion theorists, rightly having more respect for the experiments
coming from the lab, accepted the results provisionally (and later
whole-heartedly) and began to try to cobble together theories
that could hang together and encompass all the cold fusion evidence.
In the beginning that evidence was not very broad and not very
deep, but it is today. It is time to take stock of new possibilities.
What are some of the effects
that can be seen and established that may have relevance to CF/LENR?
We have seen that the work of the Graneaus et al., Wallman
and Dammann, and Mills' et al. at BlackLight Power are
revealing phenomena that can be ignored by CF/LENR researchers
only at their peril. Then we have glimpsed the Correa PAGD work
and can readily see that it is among the most promising directions
of all the electrically-stimulated excess energy processes. Apart
from Mills' CQM, which will either rise or fall on the correspondence
of its spectral predictions to Mills' hydrino models, the only
other comprehensive physics theory that is beginning to enter
the public arena is the body of work being developed by the Correas
and their colleagues. (There is now an internet discussion group
that has begun to form, for which application is necessary):
Correas' not yet fully published AToS theory (Aetherometric Theory
of Synchronicity) will undoubtedly have many direct predictions
about what may really be going on in CF/LENR, but for now it is
important to examine some of the already published experimentally-based
work for what it shows about a pervading energetic non-electromagnetic
aether. Given that this pervading aether would not only "fill"
the spaces between and within atoms, but also form the flowing,
dynamic structure of leptonic and nuclear particles, it is to
be expected that such a theory would have much to say about non-standard
energies in chemical bonding, as well as unconventional nuclear
reaction phenomena. These may all be involved in CF/LENR.
can only be the most cursory of reviews- full details have been
published by the Correas in a series of monographs on www.aetherometry.com.
On the Correa website I have earlier (2002) posted a lengthy discussion
under the rubric, "The Correa Science and Technology: An Appreciation"(at
In the brief discussion that follows, I will instead simply annotate
the Correas' own posted "Milestones" of accomplishments feature.
For this purpose, my annotation remarks appear in italic font.
References to their posted monographs (downloadable pdfs) are
in brackets, e.g. [AS2-01]:
of fundamental discoveries encompassed by the monographs published
on the Akronos website.
fundamental contributions that Akronos has published to date cover
three distinct terrains of investigation:
A range of new experimental discoveries in basic physics and biophysics:
demonstration of an autogenous pulsation that is auto-electronically
triggered from saturated cold cathodes in Paschen vacua [USP#
5,502,354]; (This is only one of the three PAGD-related patents
that I have mentioned above.)
demonstration of electrodynamic anomalies in open circuits, in
particular the development of cathode reaction forces in interrupted
vacuum-arcs or autogenously pulsed abnormal glow discharges [LS1-07,
LS1-25]; (Of special interest to CF/LENR people because Aspden's
Law of Electrodynamics appears to explain not only the anomalous
cathode reaction forces measured in the PAGD, but also the Graneau
experiment anomalies. Aspden's Law applies to systems- such as
electrolytic systems, in which there are charge carriers of different
masses, such as ions vs. electrons.)
demonstration of basic massfree energy anomalies: antigravitic
anomalies of the electroscope, driven by latent heat [AS2-01,
AS2-02, AS2-06], the thermal anomaly of specific Faraday-cage-type
enclosures [AS2-05, AS2-25, AS2-26], anomalous and charge-asymmetric
effect of far and vacuum UV photons in the Halwacks experiment
[AS2-08], 'vacuum' contribution of longitudinal electric radiation
to the normal and abnormal glow discharges in Paschen's Law [LS1-25];
(The validation that there really is an energetic massfree
aether is possible with careful, often tedious experiments which
employ rather simple equipment, such as accurate mercury thermometers,
gold leaf electroscopes, hygrometers, and special Faraday cages,
which Wilhelm Reich dubbed "Orgone Accumulators"- or ORACS. The
"signal-to-noise" in these experiments is much larger than what
CF/LENR people are often accustomed to.)
discovery of photo-induced antigravitic work promoted by specific
blackbody radiation [AS2-08];
of the particle ratios for photons, gravitons, electrons, atoms
and aether energy units in both the Hallwacks effect and the antigravitic
kinetoregenerative effect [AS2-10]; (The "Hallwacks effect"
is the pre-Einstein name for the photoelectric effect.)
to trigger vacuum cathodes into auto-electronic emission in the
absence of applied power [AS2-11];
formal and experimental demonstration of two different actions
of reverse potentials at work in living systems, the ground and
water - radiative nonelectric draw versus electric contact draw
[AS2-04, forthcoming AS2-28, forthcoming AS2-29]; (These are
most remarkable works. [AS2-04] shows simple experimental means-
using electroscopes- to demonstrate the existence of biophysical
energies associated with the experimenter's body! AS2-28 has
already been published, and is a masterful historical and scientific
overview of the errors in biological understanding-in particular
those that arose from the Galvani-Volta debate in the 1700s over
separation of the massfree and massbound charge currents and field
effects of ordinary induction and Tesla coils [AS2-13, AS2-16];
demonstration that Tesla radiation is not electromagnetic, ionizing
or blackbody, but longitudinally radiated massfree electric energy
of the fundamental electric, magnetic and electromagnetic frequencies
of induction coils for both massfree and massbound charge fluxes
[AS2-13, AS2-14, AS2-15, AS2-16];
and physico-mathematical isolation of the complete spectrum of
longitudinally radiated massfree electric energy and fundamental
constituent subspectra [AS2-17A];
and simulation of the main solar mode of longitudinally radiated
massfree electric energy [AS2-17A];
of high specific latent heat of trapped electron plasmas inside
Faraday cages exposed to Tesla radiation [AS2-17A];
The basic theoretical foundations of aetherometric science:
new analytical theory and classification of the electric and nonelectric
functions of the electroscope, where electrokinetic and gravitokinetic
components of the action of charges are explicitly differentiated
[AS2-02, AS2-04, AS2-10, AS2-27];
new treatment of the Boltzmann constant and new functions and
dimensionality for the concept of temperature [AS2-07];
new model for the local production of blackbody photons; identification
of the functional limit of the blackbody spectrum and the two
contiguous blackbody subspectra with their contrasting physical
and chemical effects [AS2-08, AS2-11, AS2-14, AS2-17A];
new model and analytical treatment of leptonic and baryonic gravitons
and antigravitons [AS2-10, AS2-27];
of the electron-resonant, fundamental nonelectric massfree energy
element whose superimposition yields the electron mass-energy
of the standing electric and magnetic wave functions constitutive
of the electron mass-energy and its finite geometry [AS2-12, AS2-15,
of the fundamental wave structure and functions of massfree charge
and the kinetic energy of massbound charge [AS2-15, AS2-16];
of the Duane-Hunt wavelength, and a novel fundamental equivalence
for Planck's Law [AS2-12];
of a new proportionality constant eta and its relation to the
fine structure constant and the production of the microwave Cosmic
Background Radiation spectrum [AS2-12, AS2-17C];
original, integrated and consistent theory and physico-mathematical
treatment of the basic electric functions and quantities - charge,
voltage, current, inductance, capacitance, magnetic flux density,
magnetic field intensity, magnetic flux, magnetic wavelength,
free and bound current densities, cyclotron frequency and linear
velocity [AS2-12, AS2-13, AS2-14, AS2-15, AS2-16];
new treatment of the invariant and variable functions for the
magnetic permeability and electrical permittivity of media [AS2-16];
to the value of the gauss in light of the value of the tesla [AS2-15];
extended physical and chemical treatment of the basic allotropic
cycle of the atmosphere that balances its enthalpy [AS2-09] and
identifies the specific solar contributions made by longitudinally
radiated massfree electric energy [AS2-17B];
model for the structure of the electron in the hydrogen atom [LS1-25]
and identification of its two fundamental states, electric and
photoinertial [AS2-12, AS2-17A]; (Needless-to-say, this model
of the electron should be of great interest to questioners of
SQM, such as Dr. Mills, but also to CF/LENR people who will see
that an alternate model of the electron of great physical significance
of a cosmic background of longitudinal electric massfree radiation,
and prediction of baryonic radio Cosmic Background Radiation spectra
[AS2-17C]; (Others have pointed out that the CBR does not
mandate a Big Bang cosmology. Here is another very good reason
not to buy into the Big Bang theory, because the CBR has a consistent,
experimentally based alternate explanation.)
cosmological model for the asymmetric generation of light leptonic
charge with minimum kinetic energy [AS2-17C];
of massfree superlattices in complex Phase Space and Time [AS2-17C];
critique of Special and General Relativity [AS4-01, AS4-02] and
a redefinition of the Space and Time manifolds and their properties
Identification of the functional length and wavelength equivalences
of mass [AS2-01, AS2-10, AS2-12, AS2-13, AS2-15, AS2-16, AS3-II.1];
of Reich's concept of an electroscopic OP, and operational isolation
of the org [AS2-03, AS2-07];
A series of technological systems and applications that this research
has yielded - and that have, to date, remained commercially unexplored:
plasma-pulse electromechanical inverter and transmitter [USP#
plasma-pulse-driven overunity converter operating in the aPAGD
and IVAD plasma regimes that charges batteries, drives spinner-type
drag-cup motors and flywheels [USP# 5,449,989; WIPO# 9,409,560;
CP# 2,147,153; pending patent; forthcoming LS1-23];
gravitoelectric converter that transforms gravitational swings
of massbound charges into electric impulses [AS2-11];
of Tesla coils under conditions of resonance-loading to produce
overunity massfree electric radiation [AS2-16];
Aetheroscope hardware for the aetherometric study of Tesla coils
to passively charge a battery from a vacuum-emission cell exposed
to specially filtered Tesla radiation in the biologically-beneficial
energy range [AS2-17A];
Faraday-cage-like enclosures as thermal drives for Stirling engines
in daytime and nighttime [AS2-25, AS2-26]; (This work has also
been published in Infinite Energy, Vol.7, No.41, January/February
2002 and Vol. 7, No.42, March/April 2002. By the summer of 2003,
such Stirling-hyborac engines had achieved round-the-clock continuous
operation exceeding 48-hours. These devices succeeded in capturing
much more than the previously understood amount of incident solar
energy, as demonstrated by the energy produced by the Stirling
engine-with a variety of calibration methodologies.)
biofield radiation meter [forthcoming AS2-29, forthcoming AS2-30];
(This author has extensively tested the response of this remarkable
inert device at the Correa lab. It has no active power system,
such as a battery, and yet it can produce a voltage response across
two terminals from over 3-meters distance with the approach of
a human being.)
ground-driven battery and capacitor charger [Dr. Mallove's report
of demonstration]; (Indeed, an overnight charging up of a large
capacitor from environmental energy.)
Motor/Converter driven by extracting massfree energy from Faraday-cage-like
enclosures, atmospheric antennas, living beings, the ground, the
vacuum state [forthcoming video, forthcoming Vol 3 of Experimental
Aetherometry; patent pending]. (This is, of course, a "Holy
Grail" for the "free-energy" field-and, indeed, as far as I am
concerned, the demonstrations which I have witnessed with this
Aether motor- which involved checking for inappropriate power
sources and physically interacting with the device- for me confirms
New Path for "Cold Fusion"/LENR?
It is obvious from the foregoing
that my view is that we should adopt this position: More progress
will occur in CF/LENR if it is understood by researchers that
the field can't remain contained within its usually defined borders.
The discovery of fission in the late 1930s offers a useful analogy:
Nuclear fission was serendipitously discovered during an attempt
to make transuranic elements via neutron bombardment of natural
uranium. The investigators did not realize initially that it was
fission fragments, not transuranic elements, that were being observed.
When they realized that nuclear fission was occurring with neutron
production as well, the path to a new chain-reaction energy source
opened. The discovery of fission contains a stark warning to the
cold fusion field today, which I had no way of realizing when
I wrote the following passages in Fire from Ice: Searching
for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor (Wiley & Sons,
Emilio Segre, who died at age 84 less than one month after the
March 1989 announcement in Utah, the previous December had recounted
the discovery of nuclear fission- on its 50th anniversary- before
a meeting of the American Physical Society. (Emilio Segre, "The
Discovery of Nuclear Fission," Physics Today, July
1989: 38-43.) Segre had worked with Enrico Fermi in Rome in 1934
on experiments that bombarded uranium with neutrons to attempt
to produce what they thought would be the first artificial element
beyond uranium, element 93- one that by prediction would be similar
chemically to rhenium. But this strong expectation of a result
prevented the discovery of fission for five years before Hahn
and Strassman in Germany ultimately recognized it. They too would
make the same mistake by expecting what the Fermi group had likewise
anticipated. Segre also recalled other lost opportunities: how
another scientist had suggested the possibility of fission happening
in their work, but whose writing was ignored; and Swiss researchers
who may have seen the fission fragment evidence but who instead
thought something was wrong with their detector. But the biggest
problem was the expectation of seeing an element heavier than
uranium, and not paying attention to the possibility of lower
mass atoms that turned out to be the telltale fission fragments.
said of writings by Hahn and Meitner on the road to the discovery
of fission, "Their early papers are a mixture of error and truth
as complicated as the mixture of fission products resulting from
the bombardments. Such confusion was to remain for a long time
a characteristic of much of the work on uranium." Segre recalled,
"My own feeling at the time was that there was a mystery in uranium."
In a remarkable statement printed in the historic December 22,
1938, paper in Naturwissenschaften announcing the fission
discovery, Hahn and Strassman wrote, "As 'nuclear chemists' working
very close to the field of physics, we cannot yet bring ourselves
to such a drastic step, which goes against all previous experiences
in nuclear physics." When the great physicist Niels Bohr heard
of the new insights on fission, he was reported to have exclaimed,
"Oh what idiots we have all been! Oh but this is wonderful! This
is just as it must be!" As Segre concluded in his talk, "Above
all, it seems to me that the human mind sees only what it expects."
Scientists who go far afield to explore puzzles and anomalies
often bump into obstacles, but every once in a while they run
into a remarkable phenomenon waiting to be discovered. It was
just so with fission; might it be true also with cold fusion?
badly mis-named "cold fusion" began its life by attempting to
prove the Main Stream Cold Fusion Hypothesis (MCFH), but in my
view the field can lead nowhere else but to a realization of profound
mistakes that have been made in 20th century physics- and other
mistakes that date back to the 19th century. Though the efforts
to explain cold fusion/LENR with prevailing paradigms has been
a noble and useful quest, my firm expectation is that these will
fail to describe the big picture adequately- the full range of
CF/LENR phenomena, not to forget the other phenomena that mainstream
physics has no hope of ever explaining. The consequences
will be that relativity theory and standard quantum mechanics
will not survive. There will be an increasing awareness of the
need for larger covering theories to replace these defective
paradigms, which- to be sure- seem to be correct theories,
in that in many/most cases they give correct quantitative
predictions. But is in the nature of the "unreasonable effectiveness
of mathematics" that theories, like Special Relativity, which
are deemed by the David Goodsteins of this world to be facts,
eventually fall as the truth of their fallibility becomes all
too evident. The experimental data that these theories
supposedly "explained," will come under a much larger umbrella.
There are and will be different explanations for the data. That
is happening right now. Above all, the concept of an energetic
aether will almost certainly have to play a central role in explaining
how CF/LENR phenomena occur. I recommend to you a series of articles
and special issues that Infinite Energy has published,
if you have not already examined these.54-60
Perhaps I am being too
idealistic or optimistic about this, but I would hope that those
who have pioneered in the CF/LENR field would re-consider their
positions. Let's get back to fundamentals. If there are other
measurements outside the mainstream CF "line" (a word our late
friend Juliano Preparata was fond of using), let us by all means
step out of line! We should be paying attention to the
work of the Graneaus, BlackLight Power, and the Correas, and other
challenging work that comes along. In fact, in the very next issue
of Infinite Energy (issue
#51, out in late September 2003), we will be publishing a
comprehensive report on the astonishing history and science behind
another physics "miracle" that was inappropriately brushed aside
by Richard Feynman, and which has been relatively dormant for
decades. This is the "noble gas engine" of Hungarian inventor
Joseph Papp. Experimental work going on today on this engine technology
(reproduction of energetic detonations in noble gases!)
and the record of the past shows that our paradigms will be forced
to stretch much further than "mainstream cold fusion" people have
been willing to do.
The bridge to an understanding
of CF/LENR phenomena can only be a return to where physics was
in 1894 when Michelson uttered his famous remark about the unlikely
major expansion of Physical Science. Back then we were just beginning
to observe and understand transmutation and the aether. Atomic
theory was in its infancy. Many good ideas were abandoned for
not so good ideas. The discoveries of "Cold Fusion"/LENR may help
to bring us back to where such research directions were so unfortunately
interrupted. It has brought me back already, and I hope that
others will follow at their own speed.
Charles Seife, Alpha & Omega: The Search for the Beginning
and End of the Universe, Viking, 2003, p.188.
Matthew R. Edwards (editor) Pushing Gravity: New Perspectives
on Le Sage's Theory of Gravitation, Apeiron (C. Roy Keys,
Inc.), Montreal, 2002.
See websites www.infinite-energy.com and www.lenr-canr.org as
well as past proceedings of International Conferences on Cold
Daniel P. Sheehan, Editor, Quantum Limits to the Second Law:
First International Conference on Quantum Limits to the Second
Law, San Diego California 28-31 July 2002, American Institute
of Physics, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol.643, (507 pages).
[Note well: The title is somewhat misleading since macrosopic
(non-quantum) violations of the Second Law comprise much of the
Eugene F. Mallove, Reference 2 reviewed, Infinite Energy,
Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, "Electrochemically Induced
Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium," J. Electroanalytical Chemistry
and Interfacial Electrochemistry, Vol.261 (10 April 1989),
301-308; Errata: Vol.263 (10 May 1990), 187-188.
E. Pennisi, "Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail," Science
News, Vo.139, March 23, 1991, p.180.
Melvin H. Miles, Benjamin F. Bush, and Joseph J. Lagowski, "Anomalous
Effects Involving Excess Power, Radiation, and Helium Production
During D2O Electrolysis Using Palladium Cathodes,"
Fusion Technology, Vol.25, July 1994, pp.478-486.
Randell L. Mills, Steven P. Kneizys, "Excess Heat Production by
the Electrolysis of an Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte
and the Implications for Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology,
Vol.20, August 1991, pp.65-81.
Randell L. Mills, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum
Mechanics, (January 1999 edition) The current edition can
be orderable in hard copy or downloaded in full from www.blacklightpower.com
(1999 edition, 1,022 pages).
Eugene F. Mallove, "The Triumph of Alchemy: Professor John Bockris
and the Transmutation Crisis at Texas A&M," Infinite Energy,
No.32, July/August 2000, pp.9-24.
Yasuhiro Iwamura, Takehiko Itoh, Mitsuru Sakano, and Satoshi Sakai,
"Observations of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Induced by D2
Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes," Infinite Energy,
Vol.8, No.47, January/February 2003, pp.14-18. (Also in Proceedings
of the 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Beijing,
China, May 19-24, 2002, Edited by X. Z. Li,)
Yasuhiro Iwamura, Mitsuru Sakano, and Takehiko Itoh, "Elemental
Analysis of Pd Complexes: Effects of D2 Gas Permeation,"
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics A, Vol.41, p.4642.
Talbot Chubb, "Transmutations and Fusion - Based on Ion Band State
Physics," Infinite Energy, Vol.8, No.47, pp.19-21.
Michael McKubre, Francis Tanzella, Paolo Tripodi, and Peter Hagelstein,
"The Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for Anomalies Observed
in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems: Evidence for 4He and 3H
Production," Proceedings of the 8th International Conference
on Cold Fusion, Lerici, Italy 21-26 May 2000, Italian Physical
M. H. Miles, "Correlation of Excess Enthalpy and Helium-4 Production:
A Review," ICCF10 paper, abstract at www.ICCF10.org.
A. DeNinno, A. Frattolillo, A. Rizzo, E. DelGuidice, "4He
Detection in a Cold Fusion Experiment," ICCF10 paper, abstract
John C. Fisher, "Theory of Low-Temperature Particle Showers,"
ICCF10 paper, abstract at www.ICCF10.org.
R.A. Oriani and J.C. Fisher, "Detection of Energetic Charged Particles
During Electrolysis," ICCF10 paper, abstract at www.ICCF10.org.
J. Dash and D. Chicea, "Effects of Hydrogen Loading By Aqueous
Electrolysis On Radioactivity of Uranium," ICCF10 paper, abstract
O. Reifenschweiler, "Reduced Radioactivity of Tritium in Small
Titanium Particles," Physics Letters A, 1994, Vol.184,
O. Reifenschweiler, "Some Experiments on the Decrease of Tritium
Radioactivity," Fusion Technology, Vol.30, 1996, p.261
Vladimir I. Vysotskii, Valerii N. Shevel, Alexander B. Tashirev,
Alla A. Kornilova, "Successful Experiments of Utilization of High
Activity Waste in the process of Transmutation in Growing Associations
of Microbiological Cultures," ICCF10 paper, abstract at www.ICCF10.org.
Scott R. Chubb "Concerning the Roles of Theory, Computation, and
Experiment in LENR's," ICCF10 paper, abstract at www.ICCF10.org.
Azevedo, R., P. Graneau, C. Millett, N. Graneau, "Powerful water
plasma explosions," Physics Letters A, 1986, Vol.117,
Ruscal, L.J., D. W. Swallom, P.Y. Pappas, P. Graneau, "Electrodynamic
water arc gun," Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Electromagnetic
Launch Technology, 1988, University of Texas at Austin.
Peter Graneau, "Gaining Solar Energy from Ordinary Water," Infinite
Energy, Vol.2, No.10, September/October 1996, pp.59-60.
Peter Graneau, "Extracting Intermolecular Bond Energy from Water,"
Infinite Energy, Vol.3, No.13/14, March/June 1997, pp.92-94.
Peter Graneau, "Why Does Lightning Explode and Generate MHD Power?",
Infinite Energy, Vol.5, No. 25, May-June 1999, pp.9-11.
Peter Graneau, Neal Graneau, George Hathaway, and Richard Hull,
"Arc-Liberated Chemical Energy Exceeds Electrical Input Energy,"
Infinite Energy, Vol.8, No.44, July/August 2002, pp.39-45.
Peter Graneau, Neal Graneau, and George Hathaway, "Evidence of
thunder being a chemical explosion in air," J. Plasma Physics,
2003, Vol.69, part 3, pp.187-197.
R. Antanasijevic, R. Banjanac, A. Dragic, D. Jokovic, D. Joksimovic,
Z. Maric, B. Panic, V. Udovicic, J.P. Vigier. "Electrical discharges
in air," Physics Letters A., Vol.306 (2002), pp. 88-90.
W. David Wallman, "A Letter from DW Research," Infinite Energy,
Vol.2, No.11, Nov./Dec. 1996, pp.35-36.
DW Energy Research, LLC, "Test report of BTU content of Carbo-hydrogenTM
(COH2 gas generated from biomass as compared with propane
and acetylene," Infinite Energy, Vol.2, No.11, Nov./Dec.
Randell L. Mills, Steven P. Kneizys, "Excess Heat Production by
the Electrolysis of an Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte
and the Implications for Cold Fusion," Fusion Technology,
Vol.20, August 1991, pp.65-81.
"Lower Energy Hydrogen Experimental Data" available at www.blacklight
power.com (Pdf download, 21 pages).
R.L. Mills "The Fallacy of Feynman's Argument on the Stability
of the Hydrogen Atom According to Quantum Mechanics," available
at www.blacklight power.com (2003) (Pdf download, 18 pages).
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, US Patent #5,416,391 "Electromechanical
Transduction of Pulses", May 16, 1995, Filed October 15,
1992 (Re-Printed in Infinite Energy, March-April 1996, Vol.2,
No.7, pp.27-35). Other patents referenced: Paulo and Alexandra
Correa, US Patent #5,449,989 "Energy Conversion System",
Sept. 12, 1995, Filed April 15, 1993; Paulo and Alexandra Correa,
US Patent #5,502,354 "Direct current energized pulse generator
utilizing autogenous cyclical pulsed abnormal glow discharges",
March 26, 1996.
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, "XS NRGTM Technology,"
Infinite Energy, March-April 1996, Vol.2, No.7, pp.18-21.
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, "Other Applications of the PAGD
Technology Besides Energy Conversion," Infinite Energy,
March-April 1996, Vol.2, No.7, pp.22-27.
Michael Carrell, "The Correa Invention: An overview and an
investigation in progress," Infinite Energy, May-June
1996, Vol.2, No.8, pp.10-14.
Michael Carrell, "The Correa PAGD Reactor: Errata and Supplement,"
Infinite Energy, July-August 1996, Vol.2, No.9, pp.33-36.
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, "Metallographic & Excess
Energy Density Studies of LGENTM Cathodes Subject to PAGD Regime,"
Infinite Energy, Dec. 1997-Jan. 1998, Vol.3 No.17, pp.73-78.
Harold Aspden, "The Reality of Perpetual Motion," Infinite
Energy, Vol.2, No,8, p.15.
Harold Aspden, "The Adams-Aspden Motor Patent," Infinite Energy,
Vol.2, No.10, p.50.
Harold Aspden, "Supergravitons and Cold Fusion," Infinite Energy,
Vol.3, Nos.15/16, p.112.
Harold Aspden, "Addendum to Supergravitons and Cold Fusion,"
Infinite Energy, Vol.3, No.17, p.7.
Harold Aspden, "Cold Fusion: The First Ten Years-Ten Years of
Cold Fusion, or Was It Ten Years of Cold War," Infinite Energy,
Vol.4, No.24, p.15.
Harold Aspden, "The Sun is Not a Hot Fusion Reactor," Infinite
Energy, Vol.5, No.28, p.13.
Harold Aspden, "Have We discovered the Neno?" Infinite Energy,
Vol.5, No.30, p.43.
Harold Aspden, "Gravity and Its Thermal Anomaly: Was the Reich-Einstein
Experiment Evidence of Energy Inflow from the Aether?" Infinite
Energy, Vol.7, No.41, p.61.
Michael C.H. McKubre, "Closing Comments Summarizing the Status
and Progress of Experimental Studies," Proceedings of the 9th
International Conference on Cold Fusion, Beijing, China, May
19-24,2002, Edited by X.Z. Li. pp.xviii-xx.
Eugene P. Wigner, "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics,"
1959. "The great mathematician fully, almost ruthlessly exploits
the domain of permissible reasoning and skirts the impermissible.
That his recklessness does not lead him into a morass of contradictions
is a miracle in itself. Certainly it is hard to believe that our
reasoning power was brought, by Darwin's process of natural selection,
to the perfection which it seems to possess." (Quoted by Eugene
Mallove in The Quickening Universe, St. Martin's Press,
Many authors. Special "Einstein Reconsidered" issues of Infinite
Energy, Vol.7, No.38 (July/August 2001) and No.39 (September/October
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, "The Reproducible Thermal Anomaly
of the Reich-Einstein Experiment Under Limit Conditions,"
Infinite Energy, July-August, 2001, Vol.7, No.37, pp.12-21.
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, "Consequence of the Null Result
of the Michelson-Morley Experiment," Infinite Energy,
July-August, 2001, Vol.38, pp.47-64.
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, "The Sagnac and Michelson-Gale-Pearson
Experiments," Infinite Energy, Sept.-Oct. 2001, Vol.7,
No. 39, pp.32-49.
Paulo and Alexandra Correa, "A Modified Orgone Accumulator
(HYBORAC) as a Drive for a Low Delta-T Stirling Engine, Part-1,"
Infinite Energy, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.7, No.41, pp. 23-29.
and Alexandra Correa, "A Modified Orgone Accumulator (Complete
HYBORAC) as a Nighttime Drive for a Low Delta-T Stirling Engine,
Part-2," Infinite Energy, Mar.-April. 2002, Vol.7,
No.42, pp. 41-48.
Mallove, Eugene, "Demonstrating Aether Energy," Infinite
Energy, Vol.7, No.41, January-February 2002, pp.6-8.
Eclectic Collection of Sentiments and Statements About the Aether
(Ether), Which Shows the Evolution of this Most Important Concept
from Antiquity Through the 19th Century and into the Present Age
by Eugene F. Mallove, Sc.D.
BC, Aristotle: (views summarized in Isaac Asimov's Asimov's
New Guide to Science (Basic Books, 1984):
Shells of Air-Aristotle supposed the world to be made up of
four shells, constituting the four elements of matter: earth (the
solid ball), water (the ocean), air (the atmosphere), and fire)
an invisible outer shell that occasionally became visible in the
flashes of lightning). The universe beyond these shells, he said,
was composed of an unearthly, perfect fifth element that he called
ether (from a Latin derivative, the name became quintessence,
which means 'fifth element'). p.207.
"There was no room in this scheme for emptiness: where earth ended,
water began; where both ended, air began; where air ended, fire
began; and where fire ended, ether began and continued to the
end of the universe. 'Nature,' said the ancients, 'abhors a vacuum'
(Latin for 'emptiness')." p.207.
"Aristotle thought the heavenly bodies were made of a substance
he called aether (from a Greek word for 'glowing' or 'blazing'),
which was fundamentally different from the materials that made
Richard Green Parker, The Boston School Compendium of Natural
and Experimental Philosophy (Boston), p.106:
It is not known what light is. Sir Isaac Newton supposed it to
consist of exceedingly small particles, moving from luminous bodies;
others think that it consists of the undulations of an elastic
medium, which fills all space, and which produces the sensation
of light to the eye, in the same manner as the vibrations of the
air produce the sensation of sound to the ear.* - *The opinions
of the philosophers at the present day are inclining to the undulatory
Samuel Maunder, in Maunder's Scientific Treasury (London)p.15:
the most subtle of all fluids, which, commencing from the limits
of our atmosphere, occupies the firmament which is above the region
of the air. The term is used by natural philosophers ancient
and modern; but not always in the same signification. According
to electricians, it is the electric fluid, or solar light. It
may, however, generally be understood to be a fluid that fills
all space; in which the stars revolve; and which when impregnated
with earthy exhalations, forms the air or atmosphere."
1840) Michael Faraday in Experimental Researches, 3075:
my own part, considering the relation of a vacuum to the magnetic
force and the general character of magnetic phenomena external
to the magnet, I am more inclined to the notion that in the transmission
of the force there is such an action external to the magnet, than
that the effects are merely attraction and repulsion at a distance.
Such an action may be a function of the aether; for it is not
at all unlikely that, if there be an aether, it should have other
uses than simply the conveyance of radiations."
(James Clerk Maxwell) in A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
(Dover Edition in Two Volumes, 1954):
"According to the theory of emission, the transmission of energy
is effected by the actual transference of light-corpuscles from
the luminous to the illuminated body, carrying with them their
kinetic energy, together with any other kind of energy of which
they may be receptacles. According to the theory of undulation,
there is a material medium which fills space between the two bodies,
and it is by the action of contiguous parts of this medium that
the energy is passed on, from one portion to the next, till it
re4aches the illuminated body.
"The luminiferous medium is therefore, during the passage of light
through it, a receptacle of energy. In the undulatory theory as
developed by Huygens, Fresnel, Young, Green, &c., this energy
is supposed to be partly potential and partly kinetic. The potential
energy is supposed to be due to the distortion of the elementary
portions of the medium. We must therefore regard the medium as
elastic. The kinetic energy is supposed to be due to the vibratory
motion of the medium. We must therefore regard the medium as having
a finite density. our theory agrees with the undulatory theory
in assuming the existence of a medium which is capable of becoming
a receptacle of two forms of energy."
9th Edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica, article by James
hypothesis of an aether has been maintained by different speculators
for very different reasons. To those who maintained the existence
of a plenum as a philosophical principle, nature's abhorrence
of a vacuum was a sufficient reason for imagining an all-surrounding
aether, even though every other argument should be against it.
To Descartes, who made extension the sole essential property of
matter, and matter a necessary condition of extension, the bare
existence of bodies apparently at a distance was a proof of a
continuous medium between them. But besides these high metaphysical
necessities for a medium, there were more mundane uses to be fulfilled
by aethers. Aethers were invented for the planets to swim in,
to constitute electric atmospheres and magnetic effluvia, to convey
sensations from one part of our bodies to another, and so on,
till all space had been filled three or four times over with aethers.
It is only when we remember the extensive and mischievous influence
on science which hypotheses about aethers used formerly to exercise,
that we can appreciate the horror of aethers which sober-minded
men had during the 18th century, and which probably as a sort
of hereditary prejudice, descended even to John Stuart Mill. The
disciples of Newton maintained that in the fact of the mutual
gravitation of heavenly bodies, according to Newton's law, they
had a complete and quantitative account of their motions; and
they endeavored to follow out the path which Newton had opened
up by investigating and measuring the attractions and repulsions
of electrified and magnetic bodies, and the cohesive forces in
the interior of bodies, without attempting to account for these
forces. Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation
by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish
his theory, 'because he was not able from experiment and observation
to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner
of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'
On the other hand, those who imagined aethers in order to explain
phenomena could not specify the nature of the motion of these
media, and could not prove that the media, as imagined by them,
would produce the effects they were meant to explain. The only
aether which has survived is that which was invented by Huygens
to explain the propagation of light. The same evidence for the
existence of the luminiferous aether has accumulated as additional
phenomena of light and other radiations have been discovered;
and the properties of this medium, as deduced from the phenomena
of light, have been found to be precisely those required to explain
1900 (George Isles) in Flame, Electricity, and the Camera
(Doubleday & McClure Co.):
"Huygens advanced the theory of undulations in an ether-now universally
accepted as the one satisfactory explanation of the facts.Nevertheless
it is held that the ether through which light and heat [radiant
heat] take their way is a substance, though of a tenuity so extreme
as to be next to nothing. Professor de Volson Wood computed that
a mass of it as large as the earth would weigh but 1.7 pounds.
Lord Kelvin tells us that in a cubic mile of it surcharged with
sunshine there resides but 20,000 foot-pounds of energy, no more
than the equivalent of the exertion of a horse during thirty-six
"Within the limits of a single viewpoint the comparison of gases
enables us to approach an explanation of the ether. Hydrogen,
which is about on-sixteenth as tenuous as oxygen, transmits sound
nearly four times as fast. If we can imagine a gas so much more
tenuous than hydrogen as to convey motion with the speed of light,
we may form an idea of the ether, and attempt, at least, to include
the ether with ordinary matter as making up one continuous scheme
of things. The question as to whether ordinary matter has originated
from ether or not remains to be considered by the inquirers of
"In bringing the man of science to the knowledge of ether, the
study of light and heat has borne its worthiest fruit. An incalculable
expansion of human thought has attended the proof that an ocean
as wide as the universe bathes every particle of matter, and binds
it to every other with bonds more rigid than links of steel. Ether,
unseen and unfelt, except to the eye and grasp of reason, explains
so many phenomena of light and heat as to be deemed not less real
than air or water. And the laws of ethereal motion as manifested
in the rays of flame have prepared the philosopher to study electricity
aright. Every extension of electrical science only confirms the
belief in that universal medium for which Huygens and Young argued
when the evidence for it was not one-hundreth part as weighty
as it is today. To formulate a theory of the ether, so that from
the simplest assumptions may be deduced the facts of electricity,
magnetism, and optics, is the chief aim of modern physical philosophy."
Albert Einstein ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"):
introduction of a 'luminiferous ether' will prove to be superfluous
inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an
'absolutely stationary space' provided with special properties,
nor assign a velocity-vector to a point of empty space in which
electromagnetic processes take place."
(Robert A. Millikan and Henry Gordon Gale - copyright 1906, 1913)
Practical Physics (a revision of the authors' A first Course
in Physics), Ginn and Company, 1920, 1922:
"428. The ether. We have already indicated that if the wave theory
is to be accepted, we must conceive, with Huygens, that all space
is filled with a medium, called the ether, in which the waves
can travel. This medium cannot be like any of the ordinary forms
of matter; for if any of these forms existed in interplanetary
space, the planets and the other heavenly bodies would certainly
be retarded in their motions. As a matter of fact, in all the
hundreds of years during which astronomers have been making accurate
observations of the motions of heavenly bodies no such retardation
has ever been observed. The medium which transmits light waves
must therefore have a density which is infinitely small even in
comparison with that of our lightest gases."
"Further, in order to account for the transmission of light through
transparent bodies, it is necessary to assume that the ether penetrates
not only all interstellar spaces but all intermolecular spaces
as well." p.367
(A. Wilmer Duff, Editor) in A Text-Book of Physics (P.
Blakiston's Son & Co.):
The Ether. To account for the transmission of waves through space
containing no ordinary matter it seems necessary to assume the
existence of a universal medium filling all space and even interpenetrating
matter itself, as shown by the existence of transparent substances.
That this medium can react on matter is shown by the fact that
radiant energy is transmitted from ether to matter in the case
of absorption, and from matter to ether in the case of emission
of radiation from material sources. This medium appears to be
like a jelly in the respect that it will transmit transverse but
not longitudinal waves. We can infer its properties only from
optical and electrical phenomena, as it is not tangible or visible;
but it may be questioned whether, after all, the effect of light
waves as they strike the retina is not as direct evidence of the
existence of the ether as a blow with a club is evidence of the
existence of matter." p.368
(Frederick Soddy) in The Interpretation of Radium and the Structure
of the Atom (G.P. Putnam's Sons) (1909 First Edition):
"Inevitably, when we begin to contemplate radiation phenomena,
we are driven to inquire into the medium filling the outer void
of space by which by virtue of which this immaterial, but vital
entity-energy-reaches us from far distant worlds. It is
true, we call it ether, and try to give it all sorts of
material or pseudo-material, characteristics. Lord Kelvin seems
to have spent a large part of his leisure time trying as it were
to dematerialize matter into ether, that is, trying by all sorts
of mechanically ingenious arrangements and analogy from material
models- the only possible models our minds can yet grasp-to obtain
a possible construction which would simulate the elusive but
all-pervading ether. Others, on the well known principle that
topsy-turvydom, if only consistent and all embracing enough, results
finally in a system no less logical and rational than the original
one, have given to the ether inconceivably great density, and
to the atoms of matter the character to holes or voids in it.
The necessity for the existence of a universal all-pervading medium,
or ether, capable of transmitting energy, no one in these days
of wireless telegraphy would deny, but on the question of its
real nature opinion is as divided as it well could be.
"The tendency, however, in modern physics today is rather to derive
and explain material phenomena from the properties of the ether
than to attempt to construct an ether on a material or pseudo-material
model. As yet, however, we know little about the properties of
the ether itself. One definite thing we do know, for certain,
and have known for a very long time, namely the velocity at which
influences are transmitted across the ether..."pp.37-38.
"In some ways we know far more about the electron than about the
atom of matter. The electron cannot move without disturbing the
medium which occupies all space continuously, and which we, not
yet knowing too much about its real nature, call the ether. It
is the motion and change of motion of the electron which give
us light, the X-rays, and the long ether waves used in wireless
telegraphy. It is the reaction of ether on the moving electron
which gives it its 'mass.'..."p.56
1927 (Albert A. Michelson) in Studies in Optics:
existence of an ether seems to be inconsistent with the theory
[of special relativity].But without a medium how can the propagation
of light waves be explained?.How explain the constancy of propagation,
the fundamental assumption (at least of the restricted theory)
if there be no medium?" (quoted by Abraham Pais in Subtle is
the Lord, 1982, p.115)
1938 (Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld) in The Evolution
of Physics, Simon and Shuster, Inc.):
arose one of the most dramatic situations in the history of science.
All assumptions concerning ether led nowhere! The experimental
verdict was always negative. Looking back over the development
o physics we see that the ether, soon after its birth, became
the 'enfant terrible' of the family of physical substances. First,
the construction of a simple mechanical picture of the ether proved
to be impossible and was discarded. This caused, to a great extent,
the breakdown of the mechanical point of view. Second, we had
to give up hope that through the presence of the ether sea one
CS would be distinguished and lead to the recognition of absolute,
and not only relative, motion. This would have been th only way,
besides carrying the waves, in which ether could mark and justify
its existence. All our attempts to make ether real failed. It
revealed neither its mechanical construction nor absolute motion.
Nothing remained of all the properties of the ether except that
for which it was invented, i.e. its ability to transmit electromagnetic
waves. Our attempts to to discover the properties of the ether
led to difficulties and contradictions. After such bad experiences,
this is the moment to forget the ether completely and to try never
to mention its name. We shall say: our space has the physical
property of transmitting waves, and so omit the use of a word
we have decided to avoid." pp.175-176.
(George Gamow) in One, Two, Three.Infinity (various editions
from 1947 through Bantam Books, 1967):
we shall see in the course of the following discussion, the greatest
mistake of the physics of the nineteenth century consisted in
the assumption that this light ether has properties very similar
to those of ordinary physical substances familiar to us. One used
to speak about fluidity, rigidity, various elastic properties,
and even the internal friction of the light ether. Thus, for example,
the fact that light ether behaves on the one hand as a vibrating
solid when carrying light waves, but on the other hand shows a
perfect fluidity and a complete absence of any resistance to the
motion of celestial bodies, was interpreted by comparing it with
such materials as sealing wax." p.92
(Wilhelm Reich) in Ether, God and Devil & Cosmic Superimposition:
"It is not our objective here to prove the existence of an all-pervading
ether; neither is it intended to prove the identity of the cosmic
orgone energy and the postulated ether. All that is to be established
at this point is the fact that there exists and all pervading,
observable and demonstrable energy. It is filling in gaps in the
comprehension of the universe, gaps that many generations of physicists
and philosophers tried hard, but in vain, to fill with the concept
of an all-pervading 'ether' as the primal substratum of the basic
functions in nature.
"The time in which cosmic orgonomic functions have been studied
is very short. It comprises not more than a decade. However, all
observations within this short period have led to the following
THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS "EMPTY SPACE." THERE EXISTS NO "VACUUM."
SPACE REVEALS DEFINITE PHYSICAL QUALITIES. THESE QUALITIES CAN
BE OBSERVED AND DEMONSTRATED; SOME CAN BE REPRODUCED EXPERIMENTALLY
AND CONTROLLED. IT IS A WELL DEFINED ENERGY THAT IS RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF SPACE. THIS ENERGY HAS BEEN TERMED
'COSMIC ORGONE ENERGY.'" [Note: This is Reich's original capitalization.]
"First let us summarize the general conclusions that followed
from the fact that there is no empty space; and, second, let us
summarize the phenomena that have forced upon us the conclusion
that the primordial comic energy, hitherto postulated as the 'ether,'
has been finally discovered in a practical manner, accessible
to direct observation and experimentation.
All physical theories resting on the assumption of 'empty space'
tumble, if and only if, the abstract mathematical structures that
were to replace the concrete physical qualities of space cannot
be reconciled with the new factual observations.
The qualities that characterize 'space' must be of a strictly
physical nature, observable and reproducible in high vacuum.
The theoretical supposition of an 'ether' continues to be valid.
The phenomenon in the 'vacuum' must agree with the qualities that
had to be ascribed to the ether in order to explain the functions
of field actions in space, such as gravity, light, attraction
at a distance, 'transmission of heat from the sun to the earth,'
The negative result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, which
was designed to demonstrate the ether, must be comprehended."
orgonomic potential does not contradict the old mechanical potential.
In fact, it explains how it is possible that a higher energy level
can exist at all. It is true that, in accepting this function,
the 'second law of thermodynamics,' the absolute formulation of
the 'law of entropy,' becomes invalid. We know that many physicists
feel uncomfortable with this law anyhow. And we have had to abandon
many other such beliefs of absolute nature, e.g., the conservation
of matter or the unchangeability of chemical elements."
(Sir Edmund Whittaker) in Aether & Electricity: Vol I:
The Classical Theories (Published in 1910 by Thomas Nelson
& Sons, London, revised and enlarged in 1951), the Preface:
"In 1910 I published a work under the title A History of the
Theories of Aether and Electricity, from the Age of Descartes
to the close of the nineteenth century. When the original
edition was exhausted, I felt that any new issue should describe
the origins of relativity and quantum-theory, and their development
since 1900. My opportunities were however not sufficient to enable
me to prepare an accurate and fully-documented account of of this
very creative period, and I was compelled to lay the plan aside.
Retirement from my professional chair has made it possible for
me to take up this project again; it will occupy three volumes,
of which this, the first, deals with classical theories. The volume
of 1910 has been to a considerable extent rewritten, with the
incorporation of much additional material; and in the second volume,
the story will be continued to 1926.
"A word might be said about the title Aether and Electricity.
As everyone knows, the aether played a great part in the physics
of the nineteenth century; but in the first decade of the twentieth,
chiefly as a result of the failure of attempts to observe the
earth's motion relative to the aether, and the acceptance of the
principle that such attempts must always fail, the word 'aether'
fell out of favour, and it became customary to refer to the interplanetary
spaces as 'vacuous'; the vacuum being conceived as mere emptiness,
having no properties except that of propagating electromagnetic
waves. But with the development of quantum electrodynamics, the
vacuum has come to be regarded as the seat of the 'zero point'
oscillations of the electromagnetic field, of the 'zero point'
fluctuations of electric charge and current, and of a 'polarisation'
corresponding to a dielectric constant different from unity.
It seems absurd to retain the name 'vacuum' for an entity so rich
in physical properties, and the historical word 'aether' may fitly
1954 (James A. Coleman) in Relativity for the Layman (Signet
"We thus see what the dilemma was. The ether was firmly believed
to exist, but all efforts to detect it not only failed but the
reasons advanced for the failure were contradictory and insecure.
So, did the ether exist or didn't it? If it did, why couldn't
we detect it? And if it didn't exist, why didn't it?"
"It was at this stage of scientific frustration and confusion
that the soul-satisfying answer was given, with such a simple
explanation that it took a genius to see it-Albert Einstein.
And with him the Theory of Relativity was born." P.42
(Anthony P. French) in Part III-"Relativity (An Introduction to
the Special Theory),"in Physics - A New Introductory Course
(MIT Science Teaching Center):
particle theory and the wave theory have been the only clearly
defined models by which to describe light and its propagation.
For a long time-until the 20th century in fact-the two theories
were taken to be mutually exclusive; it seemed obvious that acceptance
of the one must imply rejection of the other. From the vantage
point of today, we see that both photon and wave aspects of the
behavior of light must be accepted- that the facts cannot all
be forced into the mold of one or the other of the two theories.
We have learned also (thanks largely to Einstein) that we should
focus on the bare facts of observation, and should not, through
our adherence to a particular theory, read more into them than
is there. To be specific, the wave properties of light are undeniable-
diffraction, interference, polarization, etc. But the waves of
ordinary experience require a medium. What more natural, therefore,
than to build up a detailed specification of the medium that carries
light, and then to seek to detect it? Yet it was a quest that
led only to frustration. Einstein showed that the search for the
medium-the "luminiferous ether"- was sterile and unnecessary.
The ether was a red herring-something that diverted physicists
into following a false scent. Perhaps in this present discussion
we should not introduce the ether at all, knowing that we are
going to bury it again in the end. Yet one cannot fully appreciate
the emergence of special relativity without some feeling for the
importance and the appearance of reality that the ether once enjoyed.
In the next section, therefore, we shall briefly discuss this
(Abraham Pais) in Subtle is the Lord: The Science and the Life
of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press):
actual account of that history [the history of special relativity]
is somewhat more elaborate. It begins with brief remarks on the
nineteenth century concept of the aether, that quaint, hypothetical
medium which was introduced for the purpose of explaining the
transmission of light waves and which was abolished by Einstein.
Only Einstein saw the crucial new point: the dynamic aether must
be abandoned in favor of a new kinematics based on new postulates."pp.20-21
1986 (John Bell) in The Ghost in the Atom: A Discussion of
the Mysteries of Quantum Physics (Edited by P.C. W. Davies
& J.R. Brown):
Interviewer question: Bell's inequality is, as I understand it,
rooted in two assumptions; the first is what we might call objective
reality- the reality of the external world, independent of our
observations; the second is locality, or non-separability, or
no faster-than-light signaling. Now, Aspect's experiment appears
to indicate that one of these two has to go. Which of the two
would you like to hang onto?
Bell's reply: "Well, you see, I don't really know. For me it's
not something where I have a solution to sell! For me it's a
dilemma. I think it's a deep dilemma, and the resolution of it
will not be trivial; it will require a substantial change in the
way we look at things. But I would say that the cheapest resolution
is something like going back to relativity as it was before Einstein,
when people like Lorentz and Poincaré thought that there was an
aether - a preferred frame of reference- but that our measuring
instruments were distorted by motion in such a way that we could
not detect motion through the aether. Now, in that way you can
imagine that there is a preferred frame of reference, and in this
preferred frame of reference things do go faster than light. But
then in other frames of reference when they seem to go not only
faster than light but backward in time, that is an optical illusion."
Interviewer: Well that seems a very revolutionary approach!
Bell: "Revolutionary or reactionary, make your choice, But that
is certainly the cheapest solution. Behind the apparent Lorentz
invariance of the phenomena, there is a deep level which is not
Interviewer: Of course the theory of relativity has a tremendous
amount of experimental support, and it's hard to imagine that
we can actually go back to a pre-Einstein position without contradicting
some of this experimental support. Do you think it's actually
"Well, what is not sufficiently emphasized in textbooks, in my
opinion, is that the pre-Einstein position of Lorentz and Poincaré,
lamor and Fitzgerald was perfectly coherent, and is not inconsistent
with relativity theory. The idea that there is an aether, and
these Fitzgerald contractions and Lamor dilations occur, and that
as a result the instruments do not detect motion through the aether
- that is a perfectly coherent point of view." (There is much
more delicious stuff not quoted here!) pp.48-49
(Harold Aspden) from his Energy Sciences website (www.energyscience.co.uk):
NO. 4, THE HERESY OF THE AETHER
Copyright © Harold Aspden, 1998
(also Aether): a substance formerly believed to fill all space
and to be responsible for transmitting electromagnetic waves.
above is the definition of the word 'ether' to be found in Chambers
dictionary, 1998. A 1934 Edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary
defines the ether as 'the subtle elastic fluid permeating space
and filling the interstices between particles of air and other
matter, a medium through which light-waves are propagated.' In
these web pages I use the spelling 'aether' to distinguish it
from the chemical (anaesthetic) meaning of the word 'ether'.
dictionary meanings are ambiguous. The aether is best defined
as 'that which fills space devoid of matter.' If you say there
is 'nothing' in that space, meaning that space itself is 'nothingness,'
then 'space,' which the dictionary defines as 'a continuous extension
viewed with or without reference to the existence of objects in
it,' is something you view when there is nothing there to see.
With its other meaning you are viewing something that is not there
by looking at what is there. 'Nothingness' means 'non-existent.'
The word 'aether' has to mean something and the physicist should
accept it as meaning 'that which fills space devoid of matter,'
even though he or she may try then to prove that what does fill
that space is so subtle as to be ignored for all practical purposes.
are then three scientific perspectives that one can consider.
Firstly, it can be declared by way of assumption that the aether
has a specific property of determining the constant speed of light
relative to an absolute universal frame of reference. Alternatively,
one can say that the aether is a 'subtle elastic fluid permeating
space,' a medium so subtle that it can adapt to ensure that the
finite speed of light as measured in the presence of matter takes
its reference on a frame determined by the matter present. The
third perspective is to say that the aether is 'that which fills
space devoid of matter,' 'that' being a sea of energy, the deployment
and reorganization of which accounts for the creation of matter
and then go on to supplement that with the second definition.
history which led to the conflict between the Chambers 1998 dictionary
definition of 'aether' as a 'former belief' and the 1934 Oxford
dictionary definition as a 'subtle elastic fluid' is that of Einstein's
theory in assuming, quite falsely, that, if the aether exists
it defines the light propagation frame as an absolute single frame
of reference. Such history has meant that scientists have turned
their thoughts away from the study of the properties of aether
proper, a study which nevertheless can lead us to the prospect
of harnessing its energy and understanding its true regulating
effect on light propagation, particularly the scaled frequency
loss implicit in the Hubble constant, which has been misinterpreted
as an orderly progressive expansion of the universe in a sea of
you really wish to follow the path of the heretic then read on.
You will learn all about the aether and see that I must be right
in making these statements.
DOES THE AETHER HAVE A TEMPERATURE?
this point you may wonder how I can jump from Maxwell's demon
and the practical world of thermodynamics and move into the depths
of the hidden underworld I have chosen to call the 'aether.' Well,
Maxwell himself did that when he addressed the mysteries of that
Second Law of Thermodynamics and evolved a theory for the manner
in which the aether transports electromagnetic waves.
I will go directly to the question I have just posed. Does the
aether have a temperature? Well, if you are a conformist and believe
Einstein then you must say that, since the aether does not exist
in any tangible form, and has been replaced by the mathematics
of space-time, it cannot have a temperature any more than a mathematical
equation can have a temperature.
that verdict, suppose I now say that I accept that energy has
mass and that mass can gravitate and, furthermore, that there
is a sea of energy filling space, then you will conclude that
if I am right the aether is subject to gravitational forces. You
may conclude that I have to be wrong as I have gone far beyond
the notion that the aether has a temperature. Indeed, what value
could that temperature be?
ask now if you have heard of the 'cosmic background temperature,'
a quantity measured in the locality of Earth as being 2.7 K? Orthodox
scientists cannot explain that other than by declaring it to be
the heat residue of the Big Bang, implying that it is the temperature
of whatever residue of matter there is out there in so-called
say that that temperature is the temperature of the aether. It
is determined by the gravitational properties of the aether and
it is a temperature which the aether shares with matter dispersed
I do not want here to get involved in too much physics, because
I shall cover the details of this subject in the specialist PHYSICS
section of these web pages. So, for the immediate purpose I will
just say that, though the aether has a mass density, that density
is kept uniform, but we can still say that there is what is called
a 'gravitational potential' acting between aether and material
bodies such as the sun. This potential implies that energy has
been released, as energy of motion, typically heat. The reason
is that gravitational potential is negative as it implies release
of energy by the coming together of two masses.
I say that the aether owes its gravitational mass to the presence
of a system of aether particles each having a specific mass, then
the gravitational potential as between the sun and one such particle
will be a measure of the heat shed to the particle and retained
by the particle, inasmuch as the aether itself does not radiate
energy from itself. It follows that I can then be guided by the
way heat energy is shared by particles in a gas or in solid matter.
There is a constant in physics known as Boltzmann's constant.
It connects the particle's heat energy and temperature and so,
if say that the energy shed by the gravitational potential of
the aether is retained by it as heat, using that 2.7 K temperature
we measure as the cosmic background temperature, I can work out
the mass of each such aether particle.
have done such calculations. Indeed, I derived the mass of the
aether particle in the 1950s and reported it in a book I published
in 1960. The book, or rather booklet as it was only 48 printed
pages, was entitled 'The Theory of Gravitation.' It was some 30
years later that I did those aether temperature calculations using
the theoretical aether particle mass I had derived in that 1960
publication and I obtained a temperature that did, indeed, confirm
the value measured as the temperature of the cosmic background.
See [1993d]. There was no Big Bang argument in my theory!
CONCERNING MAXWELL'S THEORY
must now just mention one feature of the aether, one overlooked
by Clerk Maxwell and all those who did pursue their 19th century
models of aether. The aether conveys electromagnetic waves. Those
waves have a lateral oscillation, meaning that they wriggle sideways
in their forward progress as does a snake. To sustain such waves
the aether had to behave as if it were a solid and yet we move
through it as if it were a fluid devoid of mass. The 1934 dictionary
said it was 'a subtle elastic fluid.' That was before the 1998
dictionary got around to saying it was nothing other than something
'formerly believed to fill all space.' Well, how can the aether
be fluid and solid at the same time and sustain the passage those
lateral electromagnetic oscillations?
answer is that it has the form of a fluid crystal and, further,
that those lateral waves need something other than the structure
of the fluid crystal to provide a lateral dynamic balance. In
a fluid crystal the local presence of electric fields can cause
the fluid to develop its crystal form in the locality of those
fields. A material system such as body Earth which comprises,
at its ultra microscopic atomic level, electric charges and their
attendant fields can move through the aetherial fluid crystal
and carry a kind of aether crystal with it, whilst surrounding
aether has its own separate crystal form. The structure can dissolve
at the forward boundaries, dispersing into the background fluid,
only to reappear as new crystal structures forms behind the aether
structure that is 'dragged' along by body Earth.
one may well wonder, has the fluid crystal not been adopted by
aether theorists as their model for the aether? Am I really alone
in seeing this as the answer? What is wrong with physics if it
cannot see the good sense of at least examining the possibilities
opened up by the knowledge that there are liquid crystal displays
in our pocket calculators. If you read the 19th century history
of ideas concerning the aether, as being something impossible,
both a fluid and a solid, and you have such a calculator before
you, then you have under your control something that can exhibit
the properties of both a liquid or a solid. You cannot then say
there is no aether because there is a unresolved conflict as between
its liquid and solid properties. You might as well say that the
liquid crystal display of your calculator is an illusion, rather
than a technological reality.
understand that the aether has properties akin to those of a fluid
crystal! Or are you so sure that Einstein is right in turning
away from the aether notion, that you accept his viewpoint, rather
than respecting the memory of so many great 19th century physicists
by reviewing their efforts constructively and taken account of
today's knowledge of the fluid crystal?
us get back to the question of that lateral vibration of propagating
electromagnetic waves. Believe it or not, there is a kind of unseen
'snake' wriggling along side-by-side with the wave we eventually
sense. It is an electrical component of the aether, a dual displacement
feature, and it not only keeps the aether in balance dynamically,
but it preserves the continuity of the wave oscillations when
minor impediments are encountered in its transit through space.
Those impediments, however, take their toll on energy and, as
my theoretical analysis shows, the effect is that the wave energy
can be depleted in transit and with that the frequency. This accounts
for what cosmologists call the redshift and interpret as the mutual
recession of all stars in the universe, the phenomenon they say
is the expansion of the universe.
can derive from this argument and pure theory based on detailed
analysis of aether structure, the observed value of what is termed
the Hubble constant and that is why I am certain about what I
have just said. It is all reported elsewhere in these Web pages
and in my scientific papers of public record. See, for example,
this point, however, since these are just words, I think I should
share with you a picture of what the aether looks like, if you
really could see it. My insight into that and its portrayal will
emerge when you press the link to the 'NEXT PAGE.' I certainly
do not regard the aether as 'nothingness' and my task ahead is
to educate you, the reader, on the aether topic, whilst applying
my heresy also to more important topics, such as how we can extract
energy from that aether as well as from new kinds of heat engine
that tap ambient source of low grade heat. First, however, I must
try to guide you along the channels of thought that led me to
my aether belief. Foremost in this quest is the need to understand
something your textbooks cannot begin to address, which is how
energy fed into a solenoid, a wound coil of wire, can store energy
in that 'nothingness' I call aether and then allow us to recover
that energy when we switch the current off. Yes, your physics
textbooks will tell you about Faraday's discovery of induction
and about magnetic fields and lines of force, but though they
tell you how to calculate the energy stored in unit volume of
space, they will not tell you how a magnetic field actually stores
that energy and holds it ready for our recovery. To be sure, no
textbook can ever explain that without coming to terms with the
reality of the aether. (Harold Aspden, September 10, 1998)
(Lawrence Kraus) in Quintessence: The Mystery of Missing Mass
in the Universe (a revised edition of The Fifth Essence),
"A decade ago I coined the term 'fifth essence' to refer to the
dark matter we inferred to dominate the density of mass and energy
in the universe. This was inspired by Aristotle's quinta essentia,
the material of the heavens complementing the four elements earth,
air, fire, and water. Aristotle's essence became the more modern
aether, the material that was thought, right until the last century,
to permeate empty space. A decade ago, it seemed to me that dark
matter was a sort of modern 'fifth essence.' But even closer in
spirit to Aristotle's heavenly aether or 'quintessence' is the
currently favored possibility that nonzero energy exists throughout
empty space." p.xix
"Since that time  Einstein's special theory of relativity
has been tested innumerable times. Today, many predictions of
his theory, including the slowing of time for moving observers,
are observed daily in the high-energy accelerators built by particle
physicists to study the fundamental structure of matter. Since
this theory is incompatible with the requirement that light travels
in an aether, no large-scale effort has been exerted to extend
the work of Michelson and Morley in probing for such a medium.
One might thus date 1905 as the end of the aether story." p.22
September (Paulo and Alexandra Correa) in their "Overview of the
Aurora Biophysics Research Institute (ABRI) Effort" at www.aetherometry.com:
"More than 75 years after Einstein began the first of his several
unsuccessful attempts to unify Physics by proposing a field theory
that would integrate electrodynamics and gravitation, existing
Physics remains unable not just to complete this task but, still
more fundamentally, impotent to understand such basic functions
as the nature of heat, mass, charge, inertia, potential, or electric,
magnetic and gravitational fields or wavefunctions. In other words,
the XXth century promise of a Physics of Energy never quite materialized,
Physics having remained prisoner of poor mixtures of XIXth century
determinism with XXth century stochastic probabilism. In fact,
modern Physics is not even cognizant of the universal structure
of energy, let alone of the fine structures of mass-energy or
kinetic energy. Without such breakthroughs in very basic science,
any prospect of a unification of Physics will remain a meaningless
"Our new science of Aetherometry permits for the first time in
the history of humanity a complete decoding of all the natural
functions of Physics, including mass, charge, inertia, potential,
field, etc, because it is the first and only exclusively energetic
theory of physical, chemical and biological interactions, that
accounts for how all the fundamental constants of nature are generated.
Aetherometry is an interdisciplinary approach to BioPhysics that
relies upon the micro-functionalist methodology and physical discoveries
embodied by our Aetherometric Theory of Synchronicity (AToS).
AToS presents a complete mathematical reformulation and unification
of Physics based upon a breakthrough understanding of massfree
(aether) and massbound (matter) energy functions, as specifically
derived from the synchronous superimposition of waves and momenta.
AToS has replaced de Broglie's theory of matter waves with a new,
non-relativistic and functionalist theory of wave energy functions,
where the wave and particle duality is directly integrated.
"The first critical contribution of AToS is the rediscovery of
aether energy in massfree form as encompassing four distinct primary
manifestations - gravitational, electric and thermal, whether
sensible thermal or latent thermal. The fine structure of these
distinct aether energy forms has been entirely decoded by AToS,
as well as the structures they acquire when they associate with
mass-energy in the form of kinetic energy - be it gravitokinetic,
electrokinetic or thermokinetic.
"The second critical contribution of AToS is the discovery of
the dual fine structure of mass-energy for leptons (eg electrons)
and hadrons (eg protons), including their volumetric geometries.
By properly understanding the electric and the photoinertial momenta
and wave functions of mass-energy and, by coupling to this a novel
understanding of kinetic energy and the determination of velocity
functions, AToS enunciated a new Law of Electrodynamics that takes
into account not just the difference in mass between diverse charge
carriers (eg leptons vs hadrons), but also the interaction between
massbound and massfree charges.
"The third critical contribution of AToS is the discovery of the
cogenesis of mass-energy and corresponding graviton energy, from
massfree aether energy. This eventually permitted elucidation
of the natural functions of gravitational energy and an entirely
new understanding of the relationship between negative gravity
and latent heat. AToS has also succeeded in formulating the gravitation
constant G as a simple and elegant quantum function employing
only fundamental quantities. This then opened the way for the
integration of electric and gravitic interactions.
"The fourth critical contribution of the theory is the discovery
of the physical process whereby blackbody photons are produced
from the electric interaction between massbound and massfree charges.
In this respect, AToS places electromagnetic energy in a new light,
where photons are viewed solely as local productions and the excitation
responsible for their production can propagate independently from
the limit posed by the speed of light. This work has, amongst
other added benefits, already permitted investigation of the heretofore
unknown spectrum of solar massfree energy radiation. A parallel
analysis of the cosmic background microwave radiation has also
been carried out.
"AToS allowed precise determination of the value of the fine structure
constant, and this has permitted generation of a revised hydrogen
spectrum that now matches exactly the observed data (including
one subfractional line), something which no quantum-mechanical
model can do to this day.
outgrowths of this experimental and theoretical work, for which
patent protection is currently being sought, have been:
new method to tap the latent and sensible heat energy of atmospheric
and vacuum environments, which, by thermoelectric conversion,
can be employed to drive motors or charge batteries.
new method to experimentally achieve zero-gravity, that will lay
the foundations for negative gravity lift and propulsion systems,
as well as for control of positive gravity.
development of new instrumental software and hardware that will
perform an array of novel parametric measurements in electrodynamic,
magnetodynamic, thermodynamic, kinemassic and gravitic interactions,
with direct applications for engineering, basic and advanced sciences,
as well as control and manufacture systems.
"The Aurora Biophysics Research Institute (ABRI) is geared to
take advantage of the multiple breakthroughs of Aetherometry by
creating a nexus of distinct efforts targeting the further development
of all the disciplines of Aetherometry (with respect both to education
and research) concomitantly with the development of its various
technological embodiments. The ABRI's complex research process
is placed at the merger of Physics and Biophysics. When Leo Szilard
learned that biological clocks were not affected fundamentally
by temperature, he commented - "if there is an undiscovered
principle of physics, it seems likely that the biosphere will
have employed it". The ABRI's research aims precisely at
teasing out the Physics of the Aether which are responsible for
the functions and genesis of both mass-energy and living systems,
since the dynamic Aether - or at any rate a fundamental portion
of it - is precisely that energy principle which the biosphere
employs to control its synthetic machinery and which Physics is
only now vaguely awakening to. The foundation provided by Aetherometry
enables thought to seize the entirety of nature, whether animate
or inanimate, as being energetically alive. Since the present
development of Aetherometry permits and demands a series of linked
basic research projects in the domains of bioelectricity and biological
clocks, microbial biogenesis, electrogravitation, thermoelectric
conversion and the utilization of high-frequency, high-potential
'alternating' currents to perform work and transmit power; and
since AToS predicts specific fine structure for both massbound
and massfree charge, the hard core of the ABRI's 'mission' will
consist of those theoretical and experimental research efforts
that aim at exploiting our basic findings and testing the aetherometric
predictions. Surrounding the nexus of these basic projects, there
is another level of projects having an applied nature and aiming
at the benign technological exploitation of the existing and forthcoming
discoveries in basic science. These range from hardware and software
design and development to construction of prototypes and the design
of autonomous housing utilizing the new energy technologies."
(Stephen Hawking) in The Universe in a Nutshell (Bantam
the end of the nineteenth century, scientists believed they were
close to a complete description of the universe. They imagined
that space was filled by a continuous medium called the 'ether.'
Light rays and radio signals were waves in this ether, just as
sound is pressure waves in air. All that was needed for a complete
theory were careful measurements of the elastic properties of
the ether. In fact, anticipating such measurements, the Jefferson
Lab at Harvard University was built entirely without iron nails
so as not to interfere with delicate magnetic measurements. Einstein
had overthrown two of the absolutes of nineteenth-century science:
absolute rest, as represented by the ether, and absolute or universal
time that all clocks would measure..(I still get two or three
letters a week telling me Einstein was wrong.) Nevertheless, the
theory of relativity is now completely accepted by the scientific
community, and its predictions have been verified in countless