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infinite energy
Issue 59

A Brief Review of the Science and Events at the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF11)
Scott R. Chubb
Issue 59

Overview of the Conference

Between October 31 and November 5, 2004, 163 scientists, inventors, engineers, investors, journalists, and reporters from 21 countries came together, to meet, socialize, and exchange ideas about Cold Fusion (CF) and Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in Marseilles, France. This occurred during the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF11).

The formal program for ICCF11, which is available on-line at, involved "plenary sessions" and "poster sessions." Plenary sessions took place each morning and (except for Wednesday, November 3) each afternoon. In each of them, people who have been involved with the field or who have suggested potentially useful, new ideas gave invited talks. On the days when poster sessions were scheduled, information about each poster was presented through a two step process: 1) Each presenter was allowed to give a short (three minute) synopsis of the ideas associated with the poster, at the location where the plenary sessions were held (and when most of the attendees were present); 2) Later, the presenter was allowed to discuss the material, using a poster (which summarized the key ideas), informally, with people who were interested, at a different location. On the days when these presentations took place, poster presenters gave their three minute summaries of their work at the end of each morning, plenary session. The subsequent, informal discussions took place in a room located next to the auditorium where the plenary sessions were held, in the late afternoon on November 1 and 4, and immediately before lunch on November 2, in a great hall located next to the room where lunch was served. On November 3, there were no poster presentations.

On November 2, a special trip was arranged to Marseilles-Luminy University, where all presentations took place in a public forum, open to the University community. (The poster sessions were scheduled at a different time and location on this day, in order to deal with the logistics associated with the change in location of the meeting.) In addition to the various plenary talks and poster presentations during ICCF11, on Wednesday afternoon and evening, there were three social events: 1) an excursion to a winery (located at Château d’Estoublon) in Provence, 2) a banquet, and 3) a formal reception, hosted by the Deputy Mayor of Marseilles Daniel Hermann, where Nobel-Laureate Brian Josephson and co-discover of CF, Martin Fleischmann, were made honorary citizens of Marseilles. Also present at the ceremony was Dr. Guy Le Lay, President of the French Physical Society for the Provence area.

Funding for ICCF11 was provided directly through the conference registration fees paid by attendees and also, indirectly, through support from Marseilles-Luminy University, the Center for Condensed Matter Research and Nanoscience (CRMCN-CNRS) at Marseilles-Luminy University, the data storage company Beemo Technologies, the New Energy Foundation, the City of Marseilles, the local department government (similar to the state government), Des Bouches-Du-Rhone, and Mediterranean University (Universite de la Mediterranee).

The largest number of ICCF11 participants from a particular country (39) came from the United States. France had the second largest number (28), followed by Italy (25), Russia (16), Japan (13), Germany (8), Israel and the United Kingdom (both with 6), Switzerland (4), Peoples Republic of China and Nigeria (both with 3), and Canada (2). The remaining eight participants came from eight different countries: Australia, Belarus, Finland, India, Morocco, Netherlands, Spain, and Ukraine.

Besides the social events and scientific presentations at ICCF11, there were a number of discussions and presentations related to the political situation associated with the LENR field. In particular, on Monday afternoon, Mike McKubre gave an overview of the history and process associated with the DOE’s decision to re-review work related to LENR and the ongoing review (which has now ended–see story on p. 51).


The International Society of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ISCMNS)

On Monday evening, Akito Takahashi, Vittorio Violante, William Collis, and I provided an overview of the history and evolution of a new political/scientific development: the formation of a new scientific society, the International Society of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ( Individuals immediately involved with the ICCF conferences began to formally suggest that it would be appropriate to create such an organization in 2002, at ICCF9. Since then, a consensus has been evolving by scientists within the LENR field that such a step is both necessary and useful. During the last year, more formal action has been taken. In particular, during the 5th Asti Workshop and prior to ICCF11, plans for creating such a society were formalized, and the associated society (the ISCMNS) held its first formal meeting in Marseilles, immediately following the presentations by Takahashi, Violante, Collis, and me.

It is worthwhile to note that as in the case of a number of other societies, the ISCMNS has been created to foster both: 1) The dissemination of scientific information about a particular field; and 2) Increased funding for scientific research in this field. In order to minimize potential problems in enlisting support for the new society, the organizers deliberately decided to select a new name for the Society that seems to appropriately match the relevant scientific disciplines that appear to be involved, as opposed to using an alternative name (such as cold fusion) that not only has failed to represent the relevant science but has (as a consequence of having been used previously) impaired relevant scientific discourse.

Through its by-laws, ISCMNS will be required to advance information about CMNS and, in doing so, to help to advance scientific interaction in the field and to foster funding of the associated research. Because of the importance of the ICCF series of conferences in providing and advancing information about the CMNS field, from the outset an important goal of the new ISCMNS society has been to help to ensure that either the ICCF series (and/or a related series) of conferences will continue, permanently.

In particular, no formal structure has existed for procuring funding for the ICCF conferences. For this reason, the process of initiating and organizing one of these conferences has always entailed a degree of financial risk. Although historically, during the initial stages of the CF controversy, institutions (like the National Cold Fusion Institute, or the Electric Power Research Institute, for example) provided the necessary financial backing to help alleviate the associated risk, more recently comparable institutional support has not existed. As a consequence, beginning with ICCF9, the process of initiating an ICCF conference has involved a considerable financial burden (and potential liability) that has usually been undertaken by a single person–the ICCF conference chairman. By providing institutional support, the ISCMNS will help to alleviate these kinds of financial responsibilities. (This process has already begun: During ICCF11, ISCMNS contributed several thousand Euros to the conference.)

It is also worthwhile noting that the ISCMNS almost certainly will provide funding for other conferences. In particular, the leadership of the ISCMNS anticipates that funding will be provided to the Asti series of workshops (on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium-Loaded Metals), which have been held approximately once every 15 months since 1997. Also, as president of the ISCMNS and chairman of the Japanese Coherent Fusion Research Society (JCFRS), Akito Takahashi will be playing important roles in both organizations. The organizers of ICCF11 and ISCMNS believe that the dual role that Professor Takahashi will be playing in both organizations will help to facilitate support for the annual JCFRS meetings that take place in Japan. Potentially, similar support could be provided for the Sochi Conferences that are held in Russia (which have been held every year since 1990) and possibly in helping individuals to attend cold fusion sessions at meetings in the U.S. (for example, sessions of the American Physical Society and American Nuclear Society).


Talks Related to the Politics, Sociology, and History of LENR

A number of presentations associated with the politics, sociology, and history of the LENR field were presented on Thursday and Friday. These included talks by Jed Rothwell ("Cold Fusion and the Future"–download the e-book at and Gustav Grob ("The International Sustainable Energy Organization and Novel Energy Systems"), on Thursday afternoon, and Brian Josephson’s Friday morning talk, "Good Ways and Bad Ways to Do Science." This last talk was especially memorable. In it, Professor Josephson gave a detailed account of his failed attempts to have a cold fusion paper (by Edmund Storms) accepted for publication in the Cornell e-print archive ( He also discussed other instances in which authority figures in science have denied scientists involved in controversial areas of research (including extra-sensory perception, and cold fusion, in general terms) the privilege of having their work published, based on entirely unscientific and (at times) unethical reasons.


Additional Information and Availability of the Conference Proceedings

Most of the more important papers were presented in the plenary sessions. Some of this material (as well as additional material from a number of the posters) is available in electronic form online at and at By becoming a member of ISCMNS (through the website), it is also possible to purchase a CD that contains additional material that is not available to the general public. The ICCF11 Conference Proceedings papers, as they are received, will be made available at Formal publication of the Proceedings will be through a written, hard-copy, which will also be available in electronic form through links at the and sites.

ICCF12 has been scheduled for November 27 through December 2, 2005 in Atami, Japan.


Overview of Important Papers and New Science Presented at ICCF11

General Comments:

Two important questions that have not been examined in detail at ICCF conferences in the past are: 1) The potential role of structural changes inside and on the surface of pieces of metal where reactions take place in (most) LENR experiments, and how by pre-treating candidate pieces of metal (for subsequent experiments), using particular procedures, it might be possible to alter the structure of these substrate materials in ways, consistent with observation, that potentially can promote LENR; and 2) Questions related to whether or not substrates are even necessary in order to initiate LENR. The first question relates to a potential way of understanding the role of structural change in the underlying phenomena. In particular, although structural changes have been monitored, for example, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and related techniques, in CF experiments, systematic attempts have not been undertaken to create the kinds of structures that have been found to be helpful, based on the use of simulations and a knowledge of the relevant material science, previously. The second question, which is seemingly completely at odds with the first, is related to a more general question: Which forms of LENR are related to each other? Can certain forms of LENR (which had been thought to be related to particular environmental factors, such as those that involve material substrates where the particular reactions are thought to take place) be initiated in entirely new situations in which substrates (and potentially other structures) are not present? Both series of questions, ultimately, are related to an important development at ICCF11: The beginning of a systematic approach for isolating relevant from irrelevant factors in particular LENR experiments.

New strategies and procedures, associated with the first question, that were discussed included attempts to isolate and determine the role of particular structural features, both in excess heat experiments and in investigations of transmutation. (Transmutation refers to a process in which new elements appear to be created at room temperature through low-energy nuclear reactions.) An important potential goal of these kinds of studies is to identify ways to create patterns associated with changes in the microscopic structure of the materials that appear to be helpful in initiating the new phenomena. The hope is that this will result in a more precise microscopic understanding of the associated effect(s). One important, motivating factor for following this procedure is that fairly crude effects, associated with loading (and how to achieve loading) in the excess heat experiments, can be related systematically to forms of pre-treatment of the associated materials. At a more basic level, although this kind of approach has only been applied in a few situations, it appears to have had a real impact on new experiments. The underlying strategy for treating particular (potentially active) substrate materials clearly is better than the alternative, hit-or-miss procedure (in which a particular material is selected arbitrarily), that has been commonly used in the past. An additional important theme, reported by several groups at ICCF11, involved the development of new and improved procedures for triggering excess heat, in a reproducible fashion, either through variations in the way that the external source of heavy water strikes the material substrate (where the reaction takes place), or by using externally applied electric and/or magnetic fields, either directly in D.C. form (in the case of electric fields) or (in a situation in which both magnetic and electric fields are present) using optical forms of excitation, using lasers.

Finally, it is worthwhile noting that considerable (perhaps too much) attention was placed on transmutation (as opposed to excess heat or particle emission) experiments. Part of the reason for this is that a number of people who have done important work related to excess heat and particle emission were unable to attend. In particular, because of an unfortunate scheduling conflict, Yoshiaka Arata was not able to come to ICCF11 (despite the fact that he was initially scheduled to give an invited talk) because at the time of the conference he was scheduled to receive an important award (a medal that was presented to him by the Emperor of Japan). Other experts in excess heat who were not present were Mitchell Swartz (who also had been scheduled to give an invited talk), Melvin Miles, and Antonella De Ninno. Although a small number of particle emission talks were presented (by J. Kasagi, A. Lipson, R. Oriani, T. Mizuno, L. Kowalski), several individuals (most notably Steven Jones) who have been involved with this kind of work also were not present at ICCF11.


Important Excess Heat Experiments:

Although a relatively small number of people spoke about excess heat, three talks related to this topic not only were noteworthy, but, in one case, the associated presentation (by Roger Stringham, of First Gate Energies, P.O. Box 1230, Kilauea, HI 96754) potentially will be remembered as being as (if not more) important as any other talk that has ever been given at any ICCF conference. Stringham’s talk was significant because in it, he described a breakthrough (associated with significantly reducing the size of his sonofusion device) that could lead to a significant development in the field: The potential for controlling and sustaining excess heat, through a process which is initiated with a form of power that can be scaled upwards. In particular, it is quite possible as a result of this breakthrough that real devices (for producing heat) will be developed within the next several years.

A key point is that Stringham uses a procedure (that involves cavitation) for loading the substrate material (a piece of Pd metal, for example), where the reaction takes place that is considerably more robust than the more commonly used procedures (associated with electrolytic- and gas-loading) for creating excess heat. Stringham’s procedure is more robust because it is based on a dynamic process (in which bubbles of heavy water implode into a metal target, in a highly non-equilibrium fashion at high velocity). Not only is the associated loading rapid, as a consequence the triggering process appears to be considerably more useful for potential device applications than other potential triggering processes: In particular, Stringham has been able to trigger heat production not only in Pd, but in a number of other materials.

Beginning with the cover story of the very first issue, Infinite Energy has provided detailed descriptions of Stringham’s cavitation procedure (Tom Benson, 1995. "A ‘Micro-fusion’ Reactor: Nuclear Reactions in ‘the cold’ by Ultrasonic Cavitation," IE, 1, 1, 33; Roger Stringham, 1998. "Cavitation in D2O with Metal Targets Produces Predictable Excess Heat," IE, 4, 19, 41). Because of Stringham’s earlier successes, an effort was undertaken by the New Energy Research Laboratory (NERL) to reproduce the associated effect. Although the staff scientist responsible for this effort, Ken Rauen, initially thought he had reproduced the effect (Ken Rauen and Eugene Mallove, 2001. "First Gate Energies’ ’Sonofusion Reactor’: Initial Validation at 50% Excess Heat," IE, 6, 36, 18), he subsequently found that the calorimeter calibration that he had used in his measurements had drifted during the experiment, and, in fact, he did not find any excess heat (Ken Rauen and Eugene Mallove, 2001. "Sonofusion Calorimetry," IE, 6, 37, 39).

An important step in Stringham’s earlier procedure is associated with placing the metal target at a particular (optimal) location. It is plausible that the NERL experiments did not create excess heat because the locations of the targets in Rauen’s and Stringham’s experiments were not the same. In particular, in Stringham’s procedure, excess heat is initiated when bubbles of heavy water implode in a very specific way, in the immediate vicinity of a particular piece of metal (the metal target). The bubbles are produced using ultrasonic waves that are allowed to propagate inside a cavity, containing heavy water. When the frequency of the waves and the size of the cavity are selected in an appropriate way, standing waves can form, as a result of constructive and destructive interference between traveling waves that propagate in the (forward) direction across the cavity with reflected waves that travel in the reverse (backward) direction. (The reflected waves result when waves that are traveling in the forward direction bounce off the forward boundary of the cavity.)

When the associated standing waves collide with materials that are placed in the cavity, at particular locations, extremely rapidly imploding bubbles can be created. In certain circumstances, the associated bubbles can inject heavy water into the metal target with such high momentum that locally, high loading can take place, and heating from a CF reaction is initiated. (The sonofusion reactions, like the CF reactions that take place in the more conventional electrolytic CF cell configurations, do not produce neutrons or high energy particles, and the primary heat-producing reaction creates 4He.)

At ICCF11, Stringham reported significant progress in controlling, sustaining, and reproducing heat from sonofusion reactions, as a result of dramatically increasing the frequency (by a factor of 40) of the ultrasound that is used to produce the standing waves, while reducing the length of the cavity (by roughly a factor of 40). The new design operates with an ultrasonic frequency of 1.6 MHz, using piezoelectric elements that are the size of a quarter. One module weighs 20 grams. The power density of these modules is 2 watts/gm and about 10 watts/cc.

Plausible reasons for the success of the new design are associated both with constraining the waves to a smaller volume and the increase in frequency. In particular, although historically in the larger devices previously developed by Stringham an important limiting factor associated with initiating the CF reactions involved identifying the optimal position for placing the metal target, apparently, it is considerably easier in the new (smaller) cavity to identify and optimally select the comparable location. Typically, in the new geometry, Stringham can create 40 net watts (W) of excess power, using input power of approximately 40 W. Although the net excess heat is insufficient in amount to produce enough electricity to sustain the process indefinitely without an outside source of power, the efficiency for producing heat (which is ~150-200%) in this device is considerably higher than in an any existing form of heat generator.

A potentially important point is that because each sonofusion device, in the present architecture, is compact in size, and the associated heat can be produced at elevated temperature, it is entirely reasonable to assume that a number of heat-producing devices based on the present design can be used together to create heat in a scalable fashion.

Stringham’s work is also important because it involves a procedure for forcing deuterium (D) atoms into the metal that is not implicitly limited by a number of the physical factors (associated with temperature and/or pressure) that occur in the alternative, electrolytic- and/or gas-loading, procedures that are frequently employed.

A second group, from Israel–Energetics, Ltd.–has developed a new loading technique that apparently also can be used to create excess heat in a reproducible fashion. The innovative step in their work, that appears to make this possible, also involves using waves. As opposed to using standing waves, however, the Israeli group uses an entirely different procedure for loading and triggering excess heat. In particular, Arik El-Boher, of Energetics, explained that in their work, a non-linear, superposition of different waves, involving many different frequencies, is constructed and used to force D into a Pd substrate electrolytically or (in glow-discharge experiments) in an ionized, gaseous form (which is created by passing currents through a D+ plasma), into a Pd metal substrate. The associated waves (which El-Boher refers to as "Super-Waves") impart momentum to the heavy water (D+ plasma) in the electrolytic (glow-discharge) experiments, in a time-dependent manner that includes many different frequency components. Empirically, the Israeli group has found the "Super-Waves" appear to induce considerable variations in loading, and it is possible to obtain high loading in tens of seconds electrolytically (as opposed to loading times of tens to hundreds of hours that are frequently required in more conventional, electrolytic procedures). In the electrolytic experiments, the Israeli group also reported large amounts of excess power (in which output power is as much as 25 times larger than input power), and the phenomenon of "heat after death" (in which excess power continues, in the absence of an electrolyte). Al-Boher also reported that they had found tritium in one of their electrolytic experiments.

Energetics, Ltd. only entered the LENR field recently. (The first presentation by anyone from Energetics at an LENR conference took place during ICCF10, in 2003.) But this company not only is well-funded, it has quickly established one of the more important groups studying excess heat. In their recent electrolytic work, they have been using electrodes that were provided by a second group, which not only is also well-funded but is one of the more important (if not the most important) research centers involved with investigating excess heat: the group from ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment), located in Frascati, Italy.

Underlying much of the successful effort at ENEA for creating excess heat (which they claim they are now able to produce 100% of the time, provided particular criteria are satisfied) is a research strategy that is based on the assumption that it is necessary to understand important attributes of the materials (and the associated material science) in order to reproduce the associated effect. For this reason, at ENEA scientists have performed detailed analyses of the material properties and structure of the electrode materials that are used in their experiments.

Vittorio Violante, who is the senior scientist associated with the work, described these efforts in detail. The associated analysis and measurements are being carried out at the official ENEA Cold Fusion Laboratory. (Energetics obtained at least one of its electrodes from the Frascati group.) In particular, Violante emphasized that to reproducibly generate excess heat, it is necessary to understand the conditions for reproducibly achieving high loading. He also emphasized that the conditions for achieving high loading in deuterated metals: 1) Are controlled by equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena; and 2) Are impeded by self-induced stress, resulting from concentration gradients in deuterium at the surface, during loading, which can significantly reduce deuterium solubility and, as a consequence, reduce loading. A major focus of the ENEA materials research effort has been to identify procedures (for example, annealing and cold-working the materials at particular temperatures) for minimizing self-induced stress.

Violante then described the initial (closed cell) calorimetric procedures, helium measurements (which the ENEA team performs, in situ, along with measurements of heat). During nine experiments, in which loading values (the values of x in compounds of the form PdDx) exceeded 0.9, they obtained excess heat only twice. This suggested that, although necessary, high-loading is not sufficient for producing excess heat. Faced with this problem, they searched for a potential triggering mechanism.

Similar to results obtained by other groups, and reported during ICCF10, they found they can trigger excess heat by optically irradiating their electrodes with a laser, at relatively low (33 mW) power, tuned to a particular (.635 micron) frequency. (They also alternately switched the current [and loading] between higher and lower values.) After applying these stimuli, they were able to obtain excess heat, each time, during each of three experiments. They also found that the amount of extra 4He and excess heat in each of these experiments is consistent with a result found at SRI (and elsewhere): That the amount of additional (excess) heat energy that is observed equals one-to-two times the amount of energy that results from the product of the total number of additional 4He atoms that are observed outside the electrode with the energy release (23.8 MeV) that would occur if all of the energy associated with the d + d arrow 4He fusion reaction is converted directly into heat. (At SRI, Mike McKubre and his co-workers have shown that, depending on the material properties of the electrodes that are used in electrolytic experiments, the excess heat can be expected to be larger than the amount associated with 4He found outside the electrode, because an approximately comparable amount of 4He can be expected to remain trapped inside the cathode.)


Important Transmutation Presentations

Beginning at ICCF9, and continuing through ICCF10, Yasuhiro Iwamura from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries discussed remarkable results, which have appeared in a refereed journal (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 2002, Vol. 41, pp. 4642-4650), associated with the possibility of what appears to be a form of novel transmutation in which four deuterons combine with nuclei from a material (Sr or Cs) that has been electroplated onto a particular substrate, consisting of Pd and CaO layers that are interspersed in a very specific structure. When Sr is electroplated onto the substrate, and placed under 1 atmosphere of D2 gas, after several hours, effectively, a reaction of the form Sr + 4d Mo appears to have taken place. (Here, d refers to a deuteron.) When Cs is electroplated onto the substrate, the effective reaction is of the form Cs + 4darrow Pr.

One reason that the Iwamura et al. work is so important is that the procedure involves a very well-instrumented experiment, in which the material composition of the substrate is very specific, and the manner in which loading takes place is systematically controlled. (In particular, the amounts of D2 gas are systematically increased and decreased, and the amounts of particular atoms, found at the surface of the substrate, are carefully monitored, using X-ray photoemission measurements.) For this reason, as opposed to situations (involving electrolysis or other forms of loading) in which surface chemistry and morphology can become quite complicated, the underlying dynamics (at least superficially) in the Iwamura et al. experiments appear to be considerably simpler, and the underlying process can be monitored using precise measurements of potential changes of the materials that are associated with possible nuclear reactions. Thus, for example, in this work, the behavior and control of the materials at the surface of the substrate is tightly constrained. Two additional reasons that the Iwamura et al. work is important are: 1) Because the end-product, praseodymium (Pr), in the Cs + 4darrowPr reaction is so rare, how it could appear at all (for example, through some form of transport process), except through a nuclear reaction, is difficult to explain; and 2) A subsequent analysis of the distribution of isotopes, that are present in the Mo end-product (in the Sr + 4darrowMo reaction), which is very different from the distribution that occurs naturally, matches the distribution that results when it is assumed that in each reaction, four deuterons are added to the nucleus of an Sr atom (associated with one of its naturally-occurring isotopes), and the distribution of Sr isotopes found initially after electroplating approximately matches the one that occurs naturally.

During ICCF11, after reviewing the initial experiments, Iwamura described new results that indicate a new form of transmutation in which two forms of Barium (137Ba and 138Ba) appear to be converted into the comparable forms of samarium (149Sm and 150Sm) that would result when six protons and six neutrons (six deuterons) are added to each Ba nucleus. He then described additional work, associated with a further validation that Pr is being created (from Cs), using an improved (tunable) X-ray source (the Spring-8 synchrotron). Using this alternative source, the Mitsubishi team used X-ray fluorescence measurements to further quantify that Pr is present. These measurements also provide evidence that the associated effect (involving the possible transmutation of Cs into Pr) is not related in some way (possibly through some form of collective excitation, triggered by the X-ray source, used in the initial X-ray photoemission experiments) to the use of a particular X-ray source.

Iwamura also discussed work that they performed in addressing one question that has remained unanswered in their work: The role of a particular composite material (involving thin films of CaO interspersed between thin films of Pd) that is used as part of the substrate that holds the films (of Cs, Sr, or Ba) that are formed during the electroplating process. In particular, a schematic diagram of the substrate that is used in these experiments is shown in Figure 1. It consists of a sandwich-like structure, in which a moderately thin (0.1 symbol) film of a form of composite material (involving interspersed layers of CaO and Pd) is sandwiched between a thinner (.04symbol) film of Pd and a second, relatively thick (.1 symbol) film of Pd. Iwamura reported that the apparent transmutation process does not take place when the CaO layers are replaced with MgO layers. Using (D+) ion implantation and ion bombardment facilities at Tokohu University, Iwamura also reported that the Mitsubishi group performed measurements of the effective screening potential (during ion bombardment) using the composite (CaO/Pd) material and pure Pd. They inferred from these measurements that the density of implanted D in the composite (CaO/Pd) material is roughly an order of magnitude greater than the density of implanted D in Pd.


Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the "sandwich structure" that the Mitsubishi group uses in the design of their electrodes. As explained in the text, the structure consists of three films: a thin (0.04symbol) film of Pd, on top of a slightly thicker (0.1symbol) film of a composite (CaO/Pd) material (containing thin films of CaO interspersed between thin films of Pd), on top of a thick (0.1symbol) film of Pd.

In a truly remarkable and significant talk, Pamela Mosier-Boss described a number of experiments that she, Stanislaw Szpak, and Frank Gordon have conducted at the Space Warfare System Center, in San Diego, California. In their work, Pd is deposited in the presence of evolving D2. In the past, they have reported numerous results, including the emission of low intensity radiation (Physics Letters A, 1996, Vol. 210, pp. 382-390), tritium production (Fusion Technology, 1998, Vol. 33, pp. 38-51), excess heat generation (Thermochimica Acta, 2004, Vol. 410, pp. 101-107), and formation of "hot spots" (Il Nuovo Cimento, 1999, Vol. 112A, pp. 577-585). Three important features of their procedure are: 1) Short loading times–measurable effects are found within minutes; 2) Extremely high repeatability; and 3) As a result of their loading procedure, any potential reactions associated with their procedure are localized in surface regions, where the co-deposition of Pd and D takes place. As a consequence, their procedure is extremely flexible and can be adapted so that multiple electrode surfaces can be used in different geometries. Because the experiments are repeatable and fast, many variables and parameters can be checked.

Because the reactions are localized in the surface, probes of surface morphology (in particular, SEM pictures) can be extremely useful for understanding structural changes that may be important in potential LENR. Also, as a consequence of the reactions being localized in the surface environment, implicit forms of anisotropy are present that can help to amplify or cause particular changes in structure to occur, as a result of externally applied fields, that may be relevant in producing LENR, in a manner that can be identified using probes of changes in surface morphology, like SEM images.

During ICCF11, Pamela Mosier-Boss described a new set of experiments in which probes of surface morphology and the application of external (electric fields) were used to produce and identify particular structures that subsequently were found to contain materials (Ca, Al, SI, Mg, and Zn) that (because of their distribution) she suggested probably were the result of transmutations. Although the associated argument is not conclusive, the evidence is provocative.

An important point is that the approach that Pamela Mosier-Boss and her colleagues have adopted marries techniques associated with identifying particular changes in microstructure with procedures for altering microstructure, using a system (created by their codeposition technique), where it is possible to systematically alter a set of parameters associated with an externally-applied (electric) field that appears to trigger some form of transmutation. To my knowledge, this is the first time an attempt has been made to identify the relationship between changes in microstructure that might be related to potential LENR transmutations, that can also be induced, using applied fields, in an environment in which the conditions associated with a particular form of LENR can be reproduced, on demand. Because the external fields that potentially can trigger the effect can be changed systematically, potentially the associated procedure can be used to study the relationship between changes in microscopic structure and LENR.

A second group (from STMicroelectronics, via Tolomeo, 1 200010 Cornaredo, Milano-Italy) has been conducting experiments in which attempts are made to understand how possible transmutations might be related to changes in microstructure that are triggered by externally applied fields. U. Mastromatteo described the associated effort. In their experiments, initially, samples of silicon that are coated with a thin Pd layer are implanted with phosphorus ions. Then, the resulting structures are exposed to deuterium or hydrogen gas and irradiated with excimer laser beams. SEM images are constructed of the resulting structures, followed by an analysis of their material composition. Although the results of this work are preliminary, as in the Pamela Mosier-Boss et al. work, the procedure that is used possibly can lead to more systematic studies in which changes in microstructure are related to potential nuclear transmutations.


Particle Emission Studies:

J. Kasagi discussed new results associated with Li+D reactions in Pd and Au (Kasagi et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 2004, 73, 608), at lower (~1 KeV) energies than those that are used in most, conventional nuclear experiments. He began by providing some background about his previous work involving D+D reactions in metals. In particular, he previously found that the D+D nuclear fusion reaction rate in metals can be strongly enhanced, in some cases, as much as ~100 times larger at incident, kinetic energies of ~1 KeV. The enhancement implies a considerably larger screening energy than would be expected, as much as several hundreds of eV.

He suggested that this extrapolation (assuming the standard Gamow tunneling model is applicable) to the larger screening energies implies that in the limit of vanishing incident kinetic energy, fusion rates could be as large as to 109/cc/sec. His motivation for investigating D+Li (as opposed to D+D) was to see how the presence of a target (Li) with a higher atomic number in the metal would alter the screening energy. He found that when D ions bombard Pd-Li or Au-Li alloys, the Li+D screening energy was significantly enhanced, as in the D+D case, but he has been able to perform the extrapolation (and scaling) only qualitatively. He also used the same technique to measure screening energy as a function of incident kinetic energy when D ions bombard a liquid or solid Li target. Here, he found clear evidence of an effect associated with the phase change from liquid to solid that might enhance the reaction rate at lower energies.

Richard Oriani and John Fisher presented data from CR-39 track detectors that indicate MeV alpha particles are present (outside the walls that surround cells, in which normal and heavy water are being electrolyzed by Ni and Pd cathodes) where, arguably, their existence (based on standard rules, associated with particle penetration) can not logically be related to potential nuclear activity within either the Ni or Pd cathode. Considerable interest in the associated phenomena has resulted. In a series of measurements performed by Ludwik Kowalski, similar alpha particle tracks were observed above inactive electrodes. A. Lipson and A. Roussetski presented a talk in which they reviewed the procedures for using CR-39 detectors.

T. Mizuno also presented evidence for potentially novel forms of particle (in this case neutron) emission from D2 gas in a magnetic field. In his talk about this possibility, he also reviewed his previous transmutation results (in glow-discharge experiments), as well as his earlier neutron emission work. An interesting, and potentially useful, idea that he suggested in this particular talk involves simplifying the environment associated with a potential LENR by distinguishing effects (for example, from substrates) that might appear to be relevant (but possibly are not) from other effects.


Additional Comments

As I said in my general comments used to introduce my overview of the scientific papers, there were many papers about transmutation at ICCF11. Given the past history of the field, I have learned to be open-minded. In particular, for example, in 2000, I certainly would never have believed that the kinds of results that have been observed by Iwamura and his colleagues were possible. In my assessment, I deliberately have not provided details about many of these ideas, partly because, given my own biases, I do not think I would be capable of providing an objective appraisal. Instead of attempting to do this, I have deliberately focused on the experiments and results, in the case of transmutations, that appear to be most mature and testable.

Deliberately, for similar reasons, in this review, I have discussed particular experiments and results associated with excess heat and particle emission that I feel are more mature than others. Again because of personal biases, I have not discussed work in my own area of expertise: the theory of LENR. I would like to acknowledge my appreciation for being able to interact with a number of theorists at ICCF11, including my good friends Peter Hagelstein, Robert Bass, Xing Zhong Li, and Yeong Kim. I also especially enjoyed being able to spend additional time (well beyond the usual amount) interacting and arguing with my uncle, Talbot Chubb, about his and my ideas. Finally, I would like to mention how much I thoroughly enjoyed interacting with a newcomer to LENR theory: Dr. Julian Brown. His ideas and enthusiasm are a refreshing and inspiring change that certainly will help to advance further theoretical work and meaningful discourse.

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