New Energy Research Laboratory Device
and Process Testing Update
by Ken Rauen
Former NERL physicist Jeff Kooistra developed
an unusual electric motor, a derivative of one originally conceived
by the late Stefan Marinov. The Marinov Motor concept was modified
and demonstrated through the efforts of Kooistra, Tom Ligon, and
Tom Phipps; this design was called the KLP Motor. (See IE
Issues No. 17, pp. 40-48; No. 18, p. 7; No. 19, pp. 57-71, 85; No.
20, pp. 7-8.) The KLP took the magnetic torus-shaped rotor of the
Marinov design and made it of two stacks of opposing polarity magnets
with leakage flux allowed. It also improved the electrically conducting
ring around the magnetic torus by making it a multi-turn coil.
Jeff made a discovery while investigating
the ability of the earlier, solid copper ring to rotate while the
permanent magnet structure was fixed in position, another permutation
of the Marinov/KLP concept. When the DC current was applied to the
ring, the direction of rotation of the ring could be reversed if
the electrical brush contacts were made at the inside diameter of
the flat, washer-like shaped ring instead of at the obvious outside
diameter. This reversal made the ring rotate in the same direction
as the magnetic structure would rotate if it were allowed to rotate.
Jeff did another experiment to see what would happen if both structures
were allowed to rotate. He found that both the ring and the magnets
rotated in the same direction. This was an astonishing result, so
he called it the "Warlock's Wheel."
NERL recently completed the construction of a prototype KLP Motor.
Retired engineer Jan Roos took Jeff's prototype that had been made
within a styrofoam coffee cup as its frame (the "cup motor,"
as we called it), which exhibited prograde, same-direction rotation
of the stator when the entire motor was suspended from a nylon monofilament
from the ceiling. Jan transferred as much as he could of Jeff's
coffee cup design to a better-built prototype. Contrary to classical
physics, the cup motor seemed to be exhibiting an apparent violation
of Newton's Third Law of Motion for every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction. When Jeff's motor would work at all, as its
construction was very crude, its "stator" and attached
batteries would rotate in the same direction as the rotor, prograde
motion, an unheard-of behavior for a motor. One of the times during
which it did function, it was recorded on video tape running prograde
and then some retrograde, but clearly not the decided retrograde
direction normally expected. In comparison, a standard, miniature
DC motor with a flywheel load attached to its shaft exhibits its
stator and batteries spinning in the opposite, retrograde direction
from the rotor and flywheel, in conformance with Newton's Third
Law. Naturally, we wanted to clearly and unambiguously demonstrate
the KLP Motor's ability to violate this Law, if possible. Jan's
prototype showed retrograde motion of the case upon acceleration,
but settled down to no motion of the stator when the stator was
held in a jeweled bearing frame which allowed the stator to rotate
also. We did not see prograde motion of the case to any extent,
though some was seen. Prograde motion is definitely seen when the
motor decelerates. A conventional motor was built with the same
construction technique to see if the torque necessary to keep the
internal rotor spinning under steady speed conditions was less than
the stator housing bearings' friction. The conventional motor had
the same behavior: it would exhibit retrograde stator torque upon
startup and then settle down at the same, steady speed to a torque
which is less than the friction of the bearing supporting the rotatable
stator in the frame. See Photo 1. A gyroscope often spins without
its housing spinning at all, so a lack of stator rotation is not
a sign of a violation of Newton's Third Law.
Out of the disappointments of Jan's prototype, we wondered if the
behavior of the KLP Motor and the Warlock's Wheel were conventional
The KLP motor and internal rotor are on the left. The stator
contains the 300 turns of 34 gauge magnet wire coils, bundled
with rubber bands, and two batteries with switching circuitry,
as the KLP motor is an opto-electronically commutated DC motor.
Inside the stator housing and on top is the rotor, containing
two rectangular magnet staacks; one stack has a black tape marker
on it. The conventional motor is on the right, made from a 12VDC
fan; the fan blades were cut off and the rotor with the magnets
was glued on. The conventional motor is inside the frame and
the inside rotatable stator outer jacket, used to hold teh stator
and to reduce windage. Its rotor is nearly the same speed as
the KLP rotor, when this latter and its stator assembly were
inside the rotatable stator outer jacket.
View inside the calorimeter with the new sonofusion reactor
and its ocillator electronics. The argon pressure line is not
attached and the reator fill tube is open.
The original sonofusion piezoelectric assemblies mounted in
a reactor made of three acrylic plates.
The Crest oscillator resting on the rim of the calorimiter.
The joule heater bank and the circulation fan are visible.
I had not studied the motor in depth
when Jeff was here. So, I chose to do an analysis of the forces
involved myself, using nothing more than the F = IxB law, and the
axiom that parallel flux lines repel and antiparallel lines attract.
I found that the Warlock's Wheel behavior can be entirely explained
by these means. Leakage flux of the unusual magnetic stack is the
active magnetic flux. Jeff also identified a "Lorentzian hook"
in the rotating ring, and I found this piece of evidence to be key.
When current is introduced to a conductive ring with a substantial
change in radius, that radial current flow in the ring near the
contact point, in the presence of the magnetic field of the KLP
magnet structure, exhibits a standard IxB force which causes rotation
of the ring. Jeff's big question was how could this rotation exist
simultaneously with a force which causes the magnetic structure
to rotate in the same direction? The answer is that the stationary
current leads which touch the conductive ring via brushes or pools
of mercury feel the countertorque of classical electricity and magnetism.
The forward torque was magnetically imparted to the magnetic structure
from the current in the hand-held leads, which then imparted torque
to the ring. The motion of the ring and magnets in the same direction
hides the fact that there are opposed forces between the magnets
and the ring, and at this point, we have no reason to believe that
they are not equal forces. The hand-held leads react against the
leakage flux of the magnets, then the leakage flux of the magnets
reacts against the force created in the current in the ring. This
analysis may not be correct, but, by Ocham's Razor that the simplest
explanation is often the best explanation, it fits.
And so goes research. In order for new discoveries to be made, mistakes
are often made along with them. The KLP Motor started as exploration
for its own sake, even before Jeff came to NERL. The Marinov Motor
and its KLP descendent do not exhibit anomalous motor behavior as
far as we know. The motor is novel, in the sense that conventional
motor analysis says it would not work. We will not pursue these
concepts any more since they appear to offer no alternative to the
world's present energy sources and do not substantially change the
physics by which we search for new forms of useful energy.
The calorimetry provided by Roger Stringham
(see Issues No. 35 and 36) was totally replaced by one Seebeck envelope
calorimeter (SEC). The old calorimetry was too inaccurate to resolve
the excess heat with confidence. Roger's original reactor completely
filled the SEC, so to fit the oscillator electronics inside the
SEC, we redesigned the reactor to be much smaller. See Photo 2.
When the new reactor was tested, calibration was much better, but
excess heat in the experiment was not found again. Numerous changes
may be responsible for the "turn off" and they are still
being investigated. The resonant frequency of the piezo and reactor
combination has changed. The Crest 275D oscillator operates around
38 to 39 kHz, presumably the resonance of the original reactor provided
by Roger. We did not test it, and the original reactor is now in
pieces. The new reactor was found to be 46.3 kHz when filled with
heavy water. A mechanical stop inside the reactor for positioning
the piezo transducer assemblies was removed. That stop was where
the titanium "radiating bars" rested, assumed to be raising
the frequency by increased mechanical stiffness. Since the oscillator
was drawing 50 to 70 watts instead of 20 to 30 watts as before,
and the reactor was heating to 100°C without a heater, it is
believed that the stop was also conducting vibrational energy away
from the water in addition to detuning the reactor, which caused
it to draw more power. The removal of the stop decreased the resonant
frequency to 45.7 kHz, still far from the 39 kHz drive signal. The
original piezos were mounted in a reactor composed of three plates
of acrylic in order to look for proper cavitation and resultant
sonofusion at atmospheric pressure and to measure that resonant
frequency, believed to be close to the original resonance. See Photo
3. No excess heat was found and the resonance was 43 kHz. We had
to cut the oscillator circuit board in half to make it fit inside
the SEC; perhaps this has shifted the drive frequency. Crest has
not yet responded to our inquiry about the factory set frequency.
Another permutation of the calorimetry we are trying is to keep
the electronics outside of the SEC and to directly measure the ultrasonic
electrical power going into the piezoelectric transducers. This
is difficult to do accurately, and is the reason Roger selected
a separate calorimeter for the electronics, which subtracted the
heat dissipated from the electrical power drawn from the 120 VAC
60 Hz line source input to the oscillator. The result, by conservation
of energy, is the ultrasonic power delivered to the reactor. Chris
Eddy of Pioneer Microsystems has custom manufactured two single-channel,
second generation ultrasonic watt meters for us. We will report
the results of that testing when it has been completed.
There is a resistor bank and a small DC fan attached to the oscillator
inside the SEC so that the SEC can be calibrated. See Photo 4. The
new reactor has allowed us to insert a teflon plug in place of water
between the piezo assemblies for further calibration, with or without
the oscillator inside the SEC. The plastic plug absorbs vibrational
energy as heat and makes for a very good joule heat calibration
via the ultrasonic electrical input. The ultrasonic watt meters
can be very accurately calibrated this way. The calibrated heat
release inside the reactor also provides assurance that spacial
location inside the SEC is not a problem; the fan helps reduce this
minor influence even more. Excellent calibration errors of about
0.1 watt have been obtained with these methods.