Issue 24
infinite energy
new energy foundation
who are we?
apply for grants
donate to nef
infinite energy magazine
  about the magazine
subscribe
subscribe
subscribe
back issues
read ie
author instructions
change of address
contact us
advertising
gene mallove collection
biography
publications
photographs
video
resources
  lenr-canr magazine index in the news
in the news
links
research
  mit and cold fusion report technical references
key experimental data
new energy faq
youtube

 

 

infinite energy


Infinite Energy Device Update
New Energy Research Laboratory Device and Process Testing Update
Published in IE Volume 4, Issue #24
Conducted by Ed Wall and Gene Mallove July, 1999
Work on the Ohmori-Mizuno plasma electrolysis exploration cell sent to us for testing by NRG, (Nova Resources Group), (see IE No. 23) has continued. We have focused on the "detritus" produced--the substance found at the bottom of the cell after running. It is collected by filtration and is found to have properties that could loosely be described as "ferromagnetic." When thoroughly dried and spread out on paper, a magnet under the paper will affect the pattern that the substance forms, much like iron filings will do, only not as strongly (see photo below). Perhaps this is not ferromagnetism but paramagnetism. Whatever the explanation, there is no doubt that the effect is fully repeatable. Powdered "virgin" pure carbon rod (Alfa-Aesar, nominally < 5 ppm Fe) used for the electrodes will not do this.

Figure 2. NRG cell before use. Note much larger anode (right) than cathode area. Attached silver coin was used for neutron detection (none were detected).

We had the detritus tested for eight metals by an outside testing laboratory (Granite State Analytical, Inc. of Derry, New Hampshire). The results from two test series indicated a weak presence of iron (0.60 mg/l in the filtrate, 0.01% and 0.03% by weight in the detritus, 0.0% and 0.02% by weight in the virgin carbon rod). Noteworthy in our second test series is a strong presence of calcium, both in the detritus and the filtrate, but not in the rod--for which we know of no conventional source (other than possible impurity in the K2CO3 electrolyte, which has not yet been tested). We are certainly mindful that a few cold fusion researchers claim to have found transmutation of K to Ca. See the second series results tabulated below (Table 1).

The problems with possible contamination are foremost on our minds, so this work is only preliminary, except for the magnetically active detritus, for which we are seeking a conventional explanation. Colleague Michael J. Schaffer commented to us: "Many materials are magnetic. Ferromagnetism requires unpaired electrons plus sufficient coupling to align all the spins of neighboring atoms in the same direction. The former is a common property and gives paramagnetism, a relatively weak, but measurable magnetic response. Spin alignment is a much rarer phenomenon and is what turns weak paramagnetism into strong ferromagnetism... You might just have a magnetic compound of K and C and O."

Figure 3. When thoroughly dried and spread out on paper, a magnet (see inset) under the paper causes bristling in the detritus.
We are also studying the energy balance of the cell by examining the steam condensate that is collected and comparing that with input electrical energy. An inherent uncertainty exists in measuring power into an arcing load, because the spectrum of frequencies is extremely broad. The best method would be to use a high sampling rate digital oscilloscope, which can multiply voltage and current (voltage collected across a shunt resistor) at each sampling interval. Unfortunately, we do not yet have such an instrument However, we used our Amprobe DM-II Power Analyzer on the AC (60 Hz) power input to the rectifier that provides the DC power to drive the cell. Harmonic analysis of the oscillographs of that sinusoid reveals a very minor portion of the power contained in harmonics that would not be measured accurately by this device. Even if input power is measured accurately, there are losses in the rectifier. Also, heat and intense light radiated from the cell and plumbing are not reflected in the quantity of condensate collected--nor is the energy of any hydrogen gas that may be produced accounted for. That is why the NRG-developed cell comes with a heater for a comparison with pure joule input power vs. condensate. On a few attempts using it, we found that, like the electrolysis cell, it has top lid leaks that need fixing.
Second Series of Test Results
(Earlier Results were not as complete)
Detritus
Sample #6
1.6031 grams
Alfa-Aesar Carbon
Rod #2
1.0203 grams
Iron
0.03%
0.02%
Chromium
0.00%
0.00%
Calcium
0.47%
0.16%
Potassium
5.76%
0.62%
Aluminum
0.10%
0.09%
Magnesium
0.08%
0.04%
Copper
0.00%
0.00%
Manganese
0.00%
0.00%



Liquid Filtrate Analysis
(approx. Vol. 500 ml)
Concentration
Total Amount
%of 2.5gm of
exposed Cathode
Iron
0.60 mg/l
0.300 mg
0.0120%
Chromium
0.11 mg/l
0.055 mg
0.0022%
Calcium
229 mg/l
114.5 mg
9.1600%
Aluminum
4.23 mg/l
2.115 mg
0.0850%
Magnesium
3.50 mg/l
1.750 mg
0.0700%
Copper
0.09 mg/l
0.045 mg
0.0018%
Manganese
0.03 mg/l
0.015 mg
0.0006%

The condenser, a copper pipe jacketed by a larger PVC pipe in which cold water circulates, works well. Very little condensate collects on the inside walls of the condensate collection jar. Initial checks were made for pH of the condensate to be sure that it did not contain electrolyte by determining that it measured pH=7.0. We were excited to find some extraordinary quantities of what were initially assumed to be pure water condensate on some high power runs. Re-running the test determined that its pH 9.2 was, quite contaminated with electrolyte. The solution had blown past a long portion of uphill tubing with plastic mesh that is designed to "de-mist," then through a longer uphill piece of tube to enter the top of the condenser. The jury is still out on the cell's energy balance.

Hydrosonic PumpTM Preparations
The Griggs machine sits quietly in the corner, now wired with two thermocouples each on input and output and plumbed for operation. We are waiting on final details of approval from the power company before we can operate it.

Dennis Cravens-Dennis Letts Cell
The assortment of devices under test here at NERL is increasing. We recently purchased a Pons/Fleischmann-type heavy-water, closed cell from Dennis Cravens that he and Dennis Letts have worked on together to investigate the high-frequency RF (82 MHz) electromagnetic stimulation of a Pd cathode. Dennis Letts reports recent success in boosting the DC excess energy of such a cell with 82 MHz RF of insignificant power. We are in the calibration and cathode loading stages of this investigation.

The flow-calorimetry system employs a stainless steel Dewar within a larger tempering beaker. The cell under test rests in the Dewar and is tightly wrapped with a copper coil. The Teflon cap of the cell seals the contents and has a recombiner built into it. Cooling water that runs through the copper coil also runs through the tempering beaker, a peristaltic pump, a pulse damping device, and an electronic flowmeter. A reservoir is provided, which allows for easy periodic checking of the flow rate using a graduated cylinder and a stop watch. As with most experimental devices, this one has many subtleties. Dennis Cravens warns us that we have to think very carefully about how heat travels when assembling the device, for it is packed in insulation that should not get moist. Moist insulation can act as a heat wick.

The tempering beaker serves to provide a stable environment for the Dewar. It has a thermostatically controlled heating pad wrapped around it to maintain a 30ûC water temperature. This is a large, stable thermal mass for measurement stability.

Catalytic Fusion Cell of Dr. Les Case
Work has continued in attempting full-calorimetric measurement on a catalytic fusion cell of Dr. Case's design. We have obtained a new WW-II oxygen cylinder cell from him, but have encountered measurement problems with the present set up (see IE No. 23). We will be revising it.



Copyright © 2014-2015. All rights reserved. E-mail: staff@infinite-energy.com